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1.
Introduction
 
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is basically a sub- tropical crop. However, in India, grapes are cultivated for their excellence also under tropical conditions. In India, Grapes are cultivated in an area of 111.4 thousand ha with a total production 1,234.9 thousand tons and productivity of 11.1 tons/ha. Because of special arbour training systems provided for grape cultivation in India, productivity is highest among the grape growing countries of the world.
 
Maharashtra is a leading state in production of grapes in the whole country. With regard to agricultural land under grape cultivation and grapes production, Nasik and Sangli districts are at forefront in the state. Apart from these, grapes are also grown in the district of Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara, Solapur and Osmanabad. Nowadays, grapes are produced in Latur district of Marathwada also. However, Nasik and Sangli districts are ahead in the production of grapes in a scientific manner.
 
Area under grapes in Maharashtra is 86 thousand ha and production is around 774 thousand tons of grapes annually. Total export of grapes from India is 108.58 thousand tons during 2011-12 valuing of Rs. 602.88 crores, out of which, nearly 80% is exported from Maharashtra.
 
 
World Scenario
 
According to FAO data (2010), the leading grape producing countries in the world in terms of production are China (8,651.83 thousand tons), Italy (7,787.80 thousand tons), USA (6,777.73 thousand tons) and Spain (6,107.20 thousand tons).
 
India’s high productivity in grape has made it to reach 18th position in the world as far as production (total world production 67,116.25 thousand tons) is concerned.
 
 
Major producing countries of grapes in world (2010)
 
COUNTRY
Production (tonnes)
Area (ha)
Yield (Hg/Ha)
%age share of World in Production
China
8651831
533137
134263
12.89
Italy
7787800
777500
59316
11.60
United States of America
6777730
8001
195000
10.10
Spain
6107200
14942
174616
9.10
France
5848960
787133
100997
8.71
Turkey
4255000
19000
15625
6.34
Chile
2755700
188200
162282
4.11
Argentina
2616610
223685
116977
3.90
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
2255670
220836
100165
3.36
Australia
1684350
163785
102839
2.51
Other Countries
 18375404
 4168293
 6575047
 27.38
 World total
67116255
7104512
7737127
100.00
 
Source: FAO
 
 
Indian Scenario
 
There is sizeable increase in acreage and production of grapes in India. In acreage, there is an increase from 47.5 thousand ha in 2001-02 to 111.4 thousand ha in 2010-11.Similarly the production has increased from 1,184.2 thousand tons in 2001-02 to 1,234.9 thousand tons in 2010-11.The details are given in table.
 
 
Area, production, and productivity of grapes in India
 
YEAR
AREA(000’ ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2001-02
47.50
1184.20
24.90
2002-03
52.10
1247.80
24.00
2003-04
57.80
1474.80
25.50
2004-05
60.50
1564.70
25.90
2005-06
66.00
1649.60
25.00
2006-07
65.00
1685.00
25.90
2007-08
68.00
1735.00
25.50
2008-09
80.00
1878.00
23.50
2009-10
106.40
880.70
8.30
2010-11
111.00
1235.00
11.10
 
Source: National Horticulture Board, Government of India
 
 2.
Major producing states with production of last 3 years
 
Maximum grape production takes place in Maharashtra (774 thousand tons) state followed by southern states like Karnataka (330.3 thousand tons), Tamil Nadu (53 thousand tons) and Andhra Pradesh (27.6 thousand tons). The details are given below in table.
 
Area in ‘000’ ha; Production in ‘000’ MT; Pdy. (ha/MT)
 
STATE
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Maharashtra
55.7
1415.0
25.4
82.0
440.0
5.4
86.0
774.0
9.0
Karnataka
14.9
269.0
18.0
17.4
317.6
18.3
18.1
330.3
18.3
Tamil Nadu
3.1
91.0
29.8
2.6
44.1
16.8
2.7
53.0
19.3
Andhra Pradesh
3.0
62.2
21.0
1.4
29.8
21.0
1.3
27.6
21.0
Other
3.0
41.1
13.8
2.9
49.2
16.7
3.3
49.69
15.06
Total
79.6
1878.3
23.6
106.4
880.7
8.3
111.4
1234.9
11.0
 
Source: National Horticulture Board, Government of India
 
 3.
Description of commercially grown varieties
  Shows the varietal characteristics of commercially grown grapes
 
Name of the variety Description Berry diameter
Thompson Seedless Berries are oval to oblong in shape with T.S.S.18-22o Brix, acidity 0.5 to 0.7% 16 mm to 18 mm
Sonaka Berries are elongated, cylindrical and amber coloured,T.S.S. around 22 o Brix,acidity 0.4- 0.7% 16 mm to 19 mm
Sharad Seedless Berries are oblong to elliptical in shape and bluish black in colour with T.S.S. 18-21 oBrix and acidity 0.5-0.7% 18mm to 22 mm
Tas-e-Ganesh Berries are ovoid shaped and green to amber in colour with T.S.S. 20-22 o Brix and acidity 0.5- 0.65% 15 mm 20mm
 
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Selection of improved varieties for cultivation
  • Adoption of suitable training system and high planting density and canopy management
  • Integrated nutrient and water management of vineyards
  • Treatment with chemical growth regulants for quality improvement
  • Weed management
  • Integrated pest and disease management practices
   
5.
Harvesting season of crop
 
Harvest season of grapes is depicted below (for 12 months)
 
-Lean Period
-Peak Period
States
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Maharashtra                        
Karnataka                        
Andhra Pradesh                        
Tamil Nadu                        
Punjab                        
Haryana                        
 
Source: Indian Horticulture Database
 
 
6.
Arrival pattern in the market
 
Grapes start coming to the market in middle of January and peak time of availability is during Feburary-March.Availability season is extended further to April – May by keeping the produce in cold stores. The details are given below in table:
 
 
 
Details of arrival pattern of grapes in leading states
 
S.No. States Period Of Availability Peak Season
1
Maharashtra,Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh Middle of December - May February-March
2
Tamil Nadu** Mid of December – Mid of April February – March
3
Punjab and Haryana 1st week of June to 3rd week of june Mid June
 
** Grapes are also available in Tamil Nadu during May to July and September to November months.
 
 
7
(a) Concentrated pockets
 
State Districts
Maharashtra Nasik,Sangli,Solapur,Pune,Ahmednagar,Satara,Osmanabad
Karnataka Belgaum,Bijapur,Bagalkot, Kolar, Bangalore
Tamil Nadu Theni,Coimbatore,Dindigul, Dharampuri
Punjab Bhatinda,Ferozpur,Muktsar,Sangrur
Andhra Pradesh Rangareddy,Mehboobnagar
Haryana Fatehabad,Sirsa,Hisar
 
 
 
(b) Catchment areas of market
 
Showing the details of catchment areas of market of grapes in leading states
 
States
Districts (Market)
Blocks
Maharashtra Solapur Karmala, Barsi, Madha, Mohol, Mangalwedha, Sangole, Malsiras ,Pandharpur, Akalkot.
Nashik Kalvan, Peint Igatpuri, Sinnar, Niphad, Yeola, Nandgaon, Satana, Furgana ,Dindori, Melgaon.
Sangli Atpadi, Khanapur, Islampur, Shirala, Valva, Tasgaon, Kavathe, Mahankal, Jath, Miraj
Ahmednagar Srirampur,Sangamner,Akola,Rahusi,Nevasa,Parner,Pathardi, Srigonda,Karjat
Pune Junnar, Ambegaon, Ghod, Rajgurunagar, Wadgaonsirur, Mulshi, Welhe, Purandhar, Bhor, Baramati, Indapur, Daund, Saswad.
Satara Mahabaleshwar, Khandala, Wai, Phaltan, Koregaon ,Khata, Patan,  Karad, Vadug.
Karnataka Bijapur Indi, Sindgi, Basavna Bagevadi, Muddebihal, Tikota.
Belgaum Athni, Arkali, Chikodi, Mukeri, Bailhongal, Ramdurg, Khauapur.
Bagalkot Jamkhandi, Mudhol, Hungund, Badami.
Kolar Bagepalli, Gauribidanur, Gudibanda, ChikBallapur, Mulbagal, Malur, Bangarapet
Bangalore Amekal, Sonnenahalti, Kannur, Bagalur, Nagarur, Marangondahalli, Haralur, Mantapa, Solurur, Chandapur.
Andhra Pradesh Rangareddy Marpali, Vikarabad, Tandur, Pargi, Ibranimpatan, Shahabad, Doma, Maisaram, Miryan, Nancherla.
Mehbubnagar Kollur, Keshampat, Mughalgidda, Karnul, Wanparti, Atmakur, Gadwall, Alampur, Kolhapur, Achampet, Kondangol.
Tamil Nadu Theni Periyakulam, Andipatti, Uttammapalayam, Bodimayakkanur, Kamban, Megamali, Vadugapatti,
Coimbatore Muttuppalaiyam, Avinashi, Tiruppur, Palladam, Udumallaippettai, Pollachi,Valparai.
Dindigul Palani, Kodaikkanal, Oddanchatran, Vedasandur, Naltam, Nilakkotai, Palaiyan
Punjab Bhatinda Rampura Phul, Talwani Sabo, Bhagra, Jalal, Nathana, Bandi, Jaisinghwala, Shergarh, Sangat, Malkana, Lahri, Teona.
Ferozpur Zira, Fazilla ,Abohar, Jalalbad, Fatehgarh, Panjeke, Ladhuka, Lakhawall, Ramsara, Wahabwala.
Muktsar Kanianwali, Malaut, Baruwali, Sotha, Doda, Bhadar, AbulKharana, Bhagu, Waring, Khera
Haryana Fatehabad Ratiya, Tohana, Badalgarh, Bhattu, Sampla, Pirthala, Samiyana, Kharihajan, Bhattukalan
Sirsa Fatehpur, Dabwali, Ellenabad, Banwala, SalamKhera, Nathohar, Mangl a,Jamal, Gushalyana.
Hisar Bithmara, Adampur, Narnaund, Hansi, Budak, Mangal, Umra, Sultanpur, Babal, Baria, Agroha, Kanoh, Khedar, Budak.
 
 
8
Criteria and description of grades
 
According to Agmark standards grapes are classified into following classes:
 
Table below Showing criteria for grade designation as per AGMARK standards
 
Grade designation
Grade requirements
Provision concerning sizing
Grade tolerances
1
2
3
4
Extra class Grapes must be of superior quality. The bunches must be typical of variety in shape, development and coloring and have no defects. Berries must be firm, firmly attached to the stalk, evenly spaced along the stalk and have their bloom virtually intact.
As per table ‘A’
5% by weight of bunches not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of class I grade or exceptionally coming within the tolerances of that grade.
Class I Grapes must be of good quality. The bunches must be typical of variety in shape, development and coloring. Berries must be firm, firmly attached to the stalk and, as far as possible, have their bloom intact. They may, however, be less evenly spaced along the stalk than in the extra class. Following slight defects may be there, providing these do not affect the general appearance of the produce and keeping quality of the package. - a slight defect in shape. - a slight defect in coloring
-do-
10% by weight of bunches not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of class II grade or exceptionally coming within the tolerance of that grade.
Class II The bunches may show defects in shape, development and coloring provided these do not impair the essential characteristics of the variety. The berries must be sufficiently firm and sufficiently attached. They may be less evenly spaced along the stalk than Class I grade. Following defects may be there, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce and keeping quality of the package.  - defects in shape - defects in coloring - slight sun scorch affecting the skin only, - slight bruising, - slight skin defects
-do-
10% by weight of bunches not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting the minimum requirements.
 
 
 
Size is determined by the weight of bunches (in gms). The following minimum (in gms) requirements per bunch are laid down for large and small berries grapes.
 
Provision concerning size
 
Specification details of Corrugated Fibre Board boxes are given in the following table.
 
Grade Large berries Small berries
Extra class 200 150
Class I 150 100
Class II 100 75
 
Size tolerance:
 
Extra Class, Class I, Class II: 10% by weight of bunches not satisfying the size requirements for the grade, but meeting the size requirements for the grade immediately below.
 
 
9
Packaging and its details
 
(A) For exports:
 
Packaging is normally done in Corrugated or Solid Fibre board cartons. A layer of double pad or protective liner is placed at the bottom of the carton to protect the grapes from bruising and a polyethylene lining is placed over it. The detailed specifications are given below in table 3.10 and table
 
Specification details for Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) Boxes for packing (2Kg box) {Dimension: 270X150X100 mm}
 
S.No. Specification Slide Type Ring *Flap Tuck-In-Type RSC(REGULAR SLOTTED CONTAINER) Tray with LID
1 Material for construction 3-ply CFB 3-ply CFB 3-ply CFB 3-ply CFB
2 Grammage (g/m sq.)(outer to inner) *230X140X140 *230X140X140 *230X140X140 *230X140X140
3 Bursting strength kg/cm sq. Min. 6.00 Min. 6.00 Min. 6.00 Min. 6.00
4 Puncture resistance inches/teat inch Min.10.00 Min.10.00 Min.10.00 Min.10.00
5 Compression strength Kg. Min.225 Min.225 Min.225 Min.225
6 Cobb (30 minutes g/m sq.) Min.130 Min.130 Min.130 Min.130
 
Source: Post- Harvest Manual for Export of Grapes, APEDA, New Delhi.
 
 
Specification details for Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) Boxes for packing(5 Kg Box ) {Dimension: 480X300X100 mm}
 
S.No. Specification Slide Type Ring *Flap Tuck-In-Type RSC(REGULAR SLOTTED CONTAINER) Tray with LID
1 Material for construction 5-ply CFB 5-ply CFB 5-ply CFB 5-ply CFB
2 Grammage (g/m sq.)(outer to inner) *230X140X140X140 *230X140 X140X140 *230X140 X140X140 *230X140X140X140
3 Bursting strength kg/cm sq. Min. 10.00 Min. 10.00 Min..250 Min..250
4 Puncture resistance inches/teat inch Min..250 Min..250 Min..250 Min..250
5 Compression strength Kg Min.350 Min.350 Min.350 Min.350
6 Cobb (30 minutes g/m sq.) Max.130 Max.130 Max.130 Max.130
 
*Outer ply of white duplex board
 
Source: Post- Harvest Manual for Export of Grapes, APEDA, New Delhi.
 
 
(B) For domestic markets:
 
For domestic markets also, grapes are packed in Corrugated Fibre Board boxes.
 
10
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Grapes grown in different parts of country are transported to the big cities for marketing.
  • The fruits produced in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu find market in Mumbai, Nagpur and Kolkata.
  • The important whole sale markets of grapes in India are Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Pune and Ahmedabad. Grapes for these big arkets are usually collected at the central places in all grapes growing areas.
  • From Mumbai port grapes are exported to the destination markets.
 
 
11
Export and export potential
 
A. Domestic strengths for exports of grapes
 
Domestic strengths for exporting grapes are enumerated in following paragraphs:
  • Grapes in India are mainly cultivated in tropical region of the country where vines are pruned twice. Fruit pruning can be adjusted to harvest the crop as per the demand of the importing country.
  • Technology for production of Extra Class or Class I table grapes is available in the country.
  • The grape growers of the country are very innovative and very much receptive to new technologies and have registered with GLOBALGAP certification.
  • Yields of grapes in India are highest in the world.
  • Farmers of different regions have organized themselves by forming association/cooperatives and thus transfer of technology is easy.
  • Agri Export Zones for enhancing exports of grapes have been established.
  • Farmers of Maharashtra state in cooperation with MSAMB have branded their product as MAHA GRAPE.
  • The grape cultivators have research support from NRC for grapes, Pune, IIHR, Bangalore and State Agricultural Universities.
  • Grape growers in cooperation with MSAMB and APEDA have set up modern packhouses for handling and packing of grapes for exports.
  • APEDA has already set up a residue analysis laboratory at Pune for grape growing area of Maharashtra in order to cater to phytosanitary requirements of mporting countries.
  • Geographically India is at an advantageous position as compared to Chile, South Africa and Israel for exporting grapes to South East Asian countries like Hong Kong, Singapore etc.
 
B. Exports
 
There is a phenomenal rise in export of grapes from India, as only 54,049.87 tons were exported during 2005-2006 which has increased to 108584.56tons in 2011-2012.(APEDA database). Increase has been observed mainly in the last 5-6 years, because of the fact that India is meeting quality requirements including pesticide residues of all the importing countries in EU and supplying grapes at competitive prices.
 
 
 
Exports of grapes from India
 
Qty in MT, Value in Lacs
Year Qty Value
2005-06 54049.87 21460.85
2006-07 85897.79 30192.45
2007-08 96963.57 31782.51
2008-09 124627.97 40861.28
2009-10 131153.61 54533.89
2010-11 99311.83 41206.32
2011-12 108584.56 60288.15
 
Source: APEDA Database, 2011-12
 
 
India is the major exporter of Grapes in the world, the country has exported 108584.56 MT of Fresh Grapes worth Rs. 60288.15 Lacs during the year 2011-12. The major destinations of India’s grapes were Netherland , Bangladesh, UAE, U.K, Russia and Sudi Arbia respectively. These countries have imported more than 50 per cent of India’s grapes during 2010.
 
 
 
The detail of the major importing countries of India’s Grapes is given below:
 
 
 
Major Importing countries of India's Grapes
Country 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 %age growth Share in %age
Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value
Netherland
29074.40
16883.63
17700.20
11809.86
18511.46
14296.52
21.06
23.71
Bangladesh
45656.02
6275.73
38562.78
5495.93
39646.54
12440.29
126.35
20.63
UAE
13205.45
7285.65
10384.29
5331.84
10359.26
6448.44
20.94
10.70
United Kingdom
14359.53
8210.77
7749.39
4847.62
6841.01
5490.48
13.26
9.11
Russia
745.81
598.24
2548.46
1934.86
4936.60
4092.24
111.50
6.79
Saudi Arabia
5098.85
2725.91
4058.26
1768.87
5735.26
3531.10
99.62
5.86
Thailand
875.64
741.16
1451.52
1335.54
1807.15
1850.94
38.59
3.07
Sweden
276.68
145.16
932.27
620.87
2196.27
1604.20
158.38
2.66
Sri Lanka
1506.50
461.53
1472.85
469.73
2171.38
1584.16
237.25
2.63
Nepal
4499.04
506.42
4435.74
492.06
4712.94
846.45
72.02
1.40
Other countries
15855.72
10699.66
10016.08
7099.15
11666.71
8103.35
-852.67
13.44
Total
131153.64
54533.86
99311.84
41206.33
108584.58
60288.17
46.31
100.00
 
Source: DGCIS
 
 
 
Region-wise Export of India's Grapes
Quantity in MT; Value in Rs.Lacs
Region Name
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
EU_27
51669.01
29490.62
30284.62
19999.35
32122.43
23864.08
South Asia
51674.93
7254.63
44472.90
6459.67
46589.45
14911.46
WANA
23277.61
14298.76
15919.09
8141.32
17584.28
10934.24
CIS Countries
921.62
706.96
3275.38
2397.24
5930.93
4783.08
ASEAN
2121.60
1679.32
3112.51
2632.84
3621.89
3667.15
NE Asia
175.59
122.95
929.96
716.55
1053.59
878.18
Latin America
192.07
191.23
166.93
83.61
885.71
630.82
Other We Countries
799.36
600.91
666.93
565.01
582.35
468.52
East Africa
186.01
126.98
178.22
106.07
168.52
112.07
East Europe
36.00
23.43
18.00
11.91
20.00
15.62
East Asia
18.20
8.22
30.03
8.04
11.37
10.11
North America
9.58
6.32
96.55
43.36
6.67
6.55
West Africa
23.19
13.35
122.85
29.05
6.33
5.45
Southern Africa
1.16
0.84
4.25
3.24
0.94
0.74
Central Africa
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.15
0.12
0.07
UNSPECIFIED
47.68
9.36
33.30
8.90
0.00
0.00
Total
131153.61
54533.88
99311.82
41206.31
108584.58
60288.14
 
Source: DGCIS Annual Export
 
 
 
i) European Union
 
Exports of grapes from India are maximum to European Union during 2011-2012. As much as 32,122 tons were exported during the year. Largest importers were Netherlands (18,511 tons) and UK (6,841 tons). It must be noted that India produces grapes mainly during January to April months, where as countries like U.S.A, Argentina, Italy, Spain etc. produce grapes during September to December months. Since India is meeting quality requirements including pesticide residues of all the importing countries in EU and supplying grapes at competitive prices, there is no reason why we cannot penetrate in the markets of Belgium, Germany, Spain and have larger share of imports in Netherlands and UK.
 
 
 
ii) South Asia
 
South Asia stood at second position with the import of 46589 MT Grapes from India during 2011-12. The major market of India’s Grapes in South Asia region were Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal with 39646 MT, 2171 MT and 4743 MT respectively during the period.
 
 
 
iii) WANA Countries
 
As per DGCIS database, nearly, 17584 tons of India’s Grapes were exported to WANA Region of the world during 2011-12. The major market of India’s Grapes in WANA region was UAE and Saudi Arbia with 10359 tons and 5735 tons respectively, during the period.
 
The major competition of India Grapes export in WANA countries was South Africa and Chile. There is no reason why we cannot penetrate more in WANA countries especially in Saudi Arabia, when we have quality grapes, are meeting stringent quality control requirements of importing countries and are offering grapes at competitive prices. Moreover, India location wise is nearer to WANA countries.
 
12.
Storage
 
Temperature:
0 ± 0.5°C.
Relative Humidity:.
93 ± 2 %
Storage Period:.
3-8 weeks
Freezing Point:.
-1°C.
 
13.
Documents required for exports
 
a).Documents related to goods
  • Invoice
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of origin
 
b).Documents related to shipment
  • Mate Receipt
  • Shipping Bill
  • Bill of handing
  • Airway Bill
 
c) Documents related to Payment
  • Letter of Credit (L/C)
  • Bill of Exchange
 
d) Documents related to quality of goods
  • Phytosanitary Certificate
  • GLOBALGAP Certification
  • Health Certificate
 
e) Organic Certification
  • Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
 
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
  • GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
 
g) Other Document
  • Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.
Chain of events which happen up to shipment
 
Process flow chart in pack house
  • Receipt of raw material at pack house
  • Weighment and acceptance of produce
  • Trimming, sorting and grading
  • Weighment
  • Packing and coding
  • Pre-cooling
  • Sulphur dioxide padding
  • Palletization
  • Storage (cold stores)
  • Container loading
  • Transportation