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GREEN CHILLY
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1. Introduction
The botanical name for Indian chilies is Capsicum annuum. Maximum chillies are produced in Andhra Pradesh followed by Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra etc. Guntur in Andhra Pradesh is known for chillies.
World scenario
Asia produces 65.8% of world green chillies and pepper and stands at the top; Europe stands 2nd contributing 12.1% and Africa 3rd with 9.5% of world production. Details are given below in table12.1. Chillies produced in Asia are mainly of hot types, where as African countries produce both hot and mild types (paprika) and European production is predominantly of mild type. China tops the world in area and production of green chillies and peppers and Spain is at the top in terms of productivity (46.90 tons/ha). After China, Turkey, Mexico, Spain, USA, Indonesia, Nigeria etc are the major producers of green chilly and pepper.
Data given below in tables 12.1 and 12.2 pertain to green chilly and pepper. Green chillies are grown in India in small acreage for fresh consumption and exports.
Table 12.1: Area, production and productivity of major green chillies and pepper producing countries (including India) for the year 2006-07
COUNTRY
AREA ( '000ha)
PRODUCTION ('000tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
China
632.8
13,031.0
20.59
Turkey
88.0
1,842.1
20.93
Mexico
91.7
1,681.1
18.32
Spain
22.9
1,074.1
46.90
USA
36.3
893.61
871.0
Indonesia
173.8
871.0
5.01
Nigeria
92.0
721.5
7.84
Egypt
29.0
460.0
15.86
Korea
67.0
395.2
5.89
Italy
13.3
345.1
25.88
Others
486.5
4,548.7
9.34
World
1,739.1
25,923.0
14.90
Source: "http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567
Indian scenario
Analyzing the data given below in table 12.2, we find that the area and production of green chillies and peppers in India is almost constant for the past three years.There is only a slight increase in production from 52.16 thousand tons in 2004-05 to 59.19 thousand tons in 2006-07. In the same period productivity has increased from 9.21 tons/ha to 10.27 tons/ha.The details are given in table 2.
Table 12.2: Area, production and productivity of green chilly and pepper in India *
YEAR
AREA('000 ha)
PRODUCTION ('000 tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2004-05
5.66
52.16
9.21
2005-06
5.76
53.19
9.23
2006-07
5.76
59.19
10.27
Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567
* Separate data for green chilly is not available.
2.
Major red chilly producing states
State wise data on area, production and productivity for green chillies is not available, however, total area and production of red chillies is given in table 12.3. To give an idea, in which states the green chillies are cultivated, state wise data on red and dry chillies are given in table 12.3. Chillies are grown all over India. However, Andhra Pradesh ranks first in area and production. The state accounts for 55% of the total production estimated at 978.618 thousand tons. Karnataka comes next to Andhra Pradesh closely followed by Orissa, West Bengal and Maharashtra.
Table 12.3: Area, production and productivity of leading chilly growing states in India for last three years*
STATE (1)
AREA (000’ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2003-04 (2)
2004-05 (3)
2005-06 (4)
2003-04 (5
2004-05 (6)
2005-06 (7)
2003-04 (8)
2004-05 (9)
2005-06 (10)
Andhra
Pradesh
250.00
233.94
171.45
797.00
748.51
537.71
3.18
3.19
3.14
Karnataka
69.88
69.88
69.88
94.50
94.50
94.50
1.35
1.35
1.35
Orissa
75.04
71.57
75.12
63.18
59.38
63.29
0.84
0.82
0.84
West Bengal
60.47
52.18
51.95
66.25
61.44
60.72
1.09
1.17
1.17
Maharashtra
90.00
102.90
99.30
44.10
48.10
51.21
0.49
0.46
0.51
Madhya
Pradesh
48.81
47.09
46.66
38.37
42.92
42.48
0.78
0.91
0.91
Gujarat
27.11
24.67
31.65
24.57
26.52
37.84
0.90
1.07
1.2
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Tamil Nadu
75.21
66.99
49.03
40.07
44.63
31.83
31.83
0.66
0.65
Rajasthan
25.28
26.41
17.72
29.68
31.13
17.53
1.17
1.17
0.99
Uttar Pradesh
16.71
18.02
17.34
12.85
16.91
16.11
0.77
0.93
0.93
Punjab
9.15
9.6
9.88
14.62
15.410
15.88
1.59
1.60
1.60
Others
30.42
32.43
25.64
36.84
38.14
29.84
1.21
1.17
1.16
Total
792.896
769.986
680.33
1,271.72
1,236.76
978.61
1.60
1.60
1.43
Source: Spices Board of India
* This data is mostly for red and dry chillies as separate data for green chilly is not available.
3.
Commercially grown varieties
Many improved varieties of green chilly have been developed by private seed companies and some of the hybrid and exportable varieties are given below.
Variety
Seed company
Agni Rekha
Syngenta
Volcano
Syngenta
Tapan
Beejo Sheetal
Savitri
Beejo Sheetal
Bela
Beejo Sheetal
NS991
Namdhari Seeds
Balwant
Namdhari Seeds
Green Wonder
Nunhems
CCS-I
Century Seeds
Different varieties exported are G-4, Kiran and Jwala. Description of these varieties is given below :
G-4 (Bhagya Lakshmi): Pods are olive green in colour turning dark red on ripening; calyx is deeply shaped, seed content id 38-40%, fairly tolerant to pest and diseases and useful for green chilly also.
Kiran (X-200): Fruits are long, thin with light green pericarp turning light red colour on ripening,
colour is retentive on storage. High pungency and fairly tolerant to thrips, mites and aphids. Calyx
persistent and cup shaped. Seed content 42%
Jwala: Pods are long and slender (10-12 cm in length), seed content is less than 35%, suitable for
green chilly production around Hyderabad.
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Adoption of improved varieties.
Integrated nutrient and water management.
Integrated pest and disease management
5.
Harvesting season
The crop is harvested throughout the year.
6.
Arrival pattern
Green chillies are available in the market throughout the year.
7. (a)
Concentrated pockets
The details of the concentrated pockets of red and dry chilly in different states are given below in table 12.4. Green chilly is also cultivated additionally in these concentrated pockets.
Table 12.4: Showing concentrated pockets of chilly in India
States
Concentrated pockets
Assam
Nalbari, Darrang, Dhubri, Nagaon, Sonitpur
Meghalaya
West Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, North Garo Hills
Andhra Pradesh
Cuddapah, Adilabad, Medak, Nizamabad, Guntur
Gujarat
Banskantha, Jamnagar, Junagarh, Rajkot
Manipur
Imphal, Churchandpur, Thoubal
Nagaland
Kohima, Dimapur, Phek, Wokha, Mokokchang, Mon Zuenhoboto
Karnataka
Belgaum, Dharwad, Gadag, Bijapur, Davangere, Raichur, Bangalore,
Haveri
Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore, Salem, Dindigul, Thruvallar, Thiruchapalli, Ramanthpuram,
Sivanagar, Karur, Namakkal, Dharampuri, Virudhnagar
Maharashtra
Nasik, Pune
7. (b)
Catchment areas feeding the market
Table 12.5: Showing the details of catchment areas of markets of red and dry chilly in leading states.Green chilly is also cultivated in these catchment areas.
States
Districts (market)
Blocks
Assam
Nagaon
Koliabor,Dhing,Samaguri,Raha,Jamunamukh,Murajhar,Lanka
,Lumding.
Meghalaya
West Garo Hills
Phulbani,Rongamachokgiri,Rabbigiri,Kherapara,Rongohugui,
Selsella, Tura, Batasing,Dalu.
Andhra
Pradesh
Guntur
Tangeda,Dachepalle,Piduguralla,Sattenapalie,Vinkoda,Ponnur
u,Bapatia, Narasaraopet,Purti,Prattipadu,Pallapatla.
Gujarat
Jamnagar
Jodia,Kalavad, Jamjodhpur, Bhavad, Kalyanpur, Dwarka,
Khambalia,Dhrol.
Banskantha
Tharad, Dhabhar, Devgani, Vodgam, Danta, Vav
Manipur
Thoubal
Yairipok,Wangjing,Wabagai,Kakchig.
Charchandpur
Hanglep,Songsan,Tinaong,Senvon,Hanship ,Molnom,
Thinghat, Mulanil,Hangtam.
Maharashtra
Nasik
Kalvan,Peint,Igatpuri,Sinnar,Niphad,Yeola,Nandgaon,Satara,F
urgana, Dindori,Melgaon,
Pune
Junnar,Ambegaon,Ghod,Rajgurunagar,Wadgaonsirur,Mulshi,
Welhe, Purandhar,Bhor,Baramati,Indapur,Daund,Saswad
Karnataka
Bijapur
Indi,Sindgi,Basavna Bagevadi,Muddebihal,Tikota.
Belgaum
Athni,Arkali,Chikodi,Mukeri,Bailhongal,Ramdurg,Khauapur.
Bangalore
Amekal,Sonnenahalti,Kannur,Bagalur,Nagarur,Marangondaha
lli,Haralur,Mantapa,Solurur,Chandapur.
Tamil Nadu
Thiruchirapalli
Turaiyur, Thottiyam, Musiri, Manachanallur, Lalgudi,
Coimbatore
Muttuppalaiyam, Avinashi, Tiruppur, Palladam,
Udumallaippettai, Pollachi, Valparai.
Salem
Mettur, Yercaud, Idappadi, Omalpur, Attur, Gangavalli,
Sankagiri
8.
Criteria and description of grades
Green chilly should be 3-4 inches in length and green.
9.
Packaging and its details
(a) For export
Green chilly is packed in consumer packs of LDPE or PP (polypropylene). Twenty consumer packs of 250 gm capacity are placed in 2X2X5 pattern in a 5Kg CFB box for export purpose. The specification details of the boxes are given below in table 12.6.
Table 12.6: Specification details for Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) Boxes for packing {5 Kg Box (Dimension: 450X265X110 mm)}
S.No.
Specification
Slide Type
Ring *Flap Tuck-In-Type
RSC (regular slotted container)
Tray with LID
1.
Material for construction
5-ply CF
5-ply CFB
5-ply CFB
5-ply CFB
2.
Grammage (g/m sq.)(outer to inner)
*230X140
X140X140
*230X140
X140X140
*230X140
X140X140
*230X140
X140X140
3.
Bursting strength kg/cm sq.
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
4.
Puncture resistance inches/teat inch
Min..250
Min..250
Min..250
Min..250
5.
Compression strength Kg.
Min.350
Min.350
Min.350
Min.350
6.
Cobb (30 minutes g/m sq.)
Max.130
Max.130
Max.130
Max.130
*Outer ply of white duplex board
Source: Post- Harvest Manuals on Exports of Fruits, APEDA, New Delhi.
(b) For domestic market
For domestic market chilly is packed in gunny bags.
10.
Price graph of green chilly
*The above graph showing the price (in Rs./Qtl.) of green chilly in major chilly producing states
11.
Export and export potential
A. Domestic strengths for exporting green chilly
Domestic strengths for exporting green chillies are given below:
India grows a variety of green chillies having mild pungency to high pungency.
Green chillies in India are available throughout the year.
Superior varieties of green chillies have been bred and have been made available to
growers.
There is strong research support for cultivation of green chillies, as Indian Institute of
Vegetable Research, Varanasi and State Agricultural Universities apart from IIHR,
Bangalore and IARI, New Delhi are actively working on various aspects of chillies.
APEDA has sanctioned Agri Export Zones in Punjab, U.P., Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Bihar and West Bengal for promoting exports of vegetables including green chilly
B. Exports
There is phenomenal increase in exports of green chillies as from 1385 tons in 2002-03 it has increased to 18187 tons in 2006-07 (Table 12.7 & Fig 29).
Table 12.7: Export of green chillies in last five years
Year
Quantity(tons)
Value(in Rs. Lakhs)
2002-2003
1385
284.4
2003-2004
3838
898.9
2004-2005
7952
909.2
2005-2006
8764
1482.5
2006-2007
18187
2216.3
Source: APEDA Database, 2006-07
C. Export potential
Export potential is discussed in following paras region wise:
(i) GCC countries
Out of total exports of green chillies during 2006-07 from India, maximum amount of green chillies were exported to Gulf countries (16,674 tons). Largest importer among GCC countries of Indian green chillies was UAE (15,716 tons) followed by Bahrain (549 tons) and Kuwait (294 tons). This is comparatively little compared to imports by GCC countries as India is exporting at competitive prices. Total imports by GCC countries during 2006 were 56,280 tons and there is 158% increase in demand over the year 2003. Maximum imports were from UAE (30,457 tons) and Saudi Arabia (10,343 tons). Though our exports to UAE are substantial but our exports to Saudi Arabia were only 51 tons during 2006-07. Therefore, there is a need to
penetrate Saudi Arabian, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait markets by appropriate campaigns etc. There is a strong potential for increasing exports up to 30,000 to 35,000 tons in next 4-5 years.
(ii) ASEAN countries
ASEAN countries imported green chillies to the tune of 46,705 tons in 2006 compared to imports of 42,844 tons during 2003 with increase in demand of 9%. Major importers in ASEAN countries in 2006 were Malaysia (32,427 tons) and Singapore (13,255 tons). India’s export of green chillies was very meager, as only 19 tons were exported to Singapore during 2006-07. However, during 2005-06, India exported 196 tons of green chillies to
Malaysia. This clearly shows that there is a good potential for exporting to Malaysia and
Singapore among ASEAN countries, which need to be nurtured for accelerating exports of
green chillies. Because of our quality chillies, it should not be difficult to export 2000 to 2500
tons in next 4-5 years. But India will have to provide at competitive prices by cutting cost of
production.
(iii) European Union
European Union has imported green chillies including peppers to the extent of 1,032,194 tons during 2006. India’s export of green chillies to EU comprised 70 tons to UK, 14 tons to Italy and 11 tons to France. Total exports amounted to 95 tons during 2006-07, whereas exports were slightly higher during 2005-06. India exported 140 tons to UK, 36 tons to France and 18 tons to Germany. The export of two years suggests that there is some potential in exports of green chillies to EU. Therefore, exports of green chillies need to be pursued vigorously and should not be difficult to enhance exports of green chillies to EU to an
extent of 800 to 1000 tons in next 4-5 years, provided India supplies at competitive prices as Spain and Jordan are main competitors who supply relatively at lower prices.
(iv) Australia
There is a good potential for exporting green chillies. Australian market is monopolized by New Zealand. However, Indian chillies are totally different from New
Zealand and therefore, export must be explored
D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness for exporting green chilly
Following steps need to be taken to enhance competitiveness:
In order to stand the competition, it is most important to make available quality product.
For enhancing quality, better post harvest handling facilities need to be adopted, so that quality product with freshness and greater appeal is exported.
Farmers need to be trained on quality parameters for green chilly
India must adopt branding for its product.
Markets need to be nurtured by holding vegetable shows in importing countries.
13.
Documents required for exports
a) Documents related to goods
a) Invoice b) Packing List c) Certificate of origin
b)
Documents related to shipment
a) Mate Receipt b) Shipping Bill c) Bill of handing d) Airway Bill
c)
Documents related to Payment
a) Letter of Credit (L/C) b) Bill of Exchange
d)
Documents related to quality of goods: -
a) Phytosanitary Certificate b) GLOBALGAP Certification c) Health Certificate
e)
Organic Certification
- Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
f)
Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
g)
Other Document
Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer
14.
Chain of events (from pack house upto shipment)
Harvesting (in the morning)

Handling and ↓transportation
Unloading

Grading and ↓sorting
Packing

Precooling

Cold storag

Palletizing

Refrigerated trucks

Shipment

15.
Price prevailing in international markets
Table 12.8: showing the prices of green chilly in EU and Dubai markets
Country
Annual Average price Range (2003-08)
Currency
EU countries
USD/kg
1.32 to 2.62
INR/kg
59.71 to 118.09
Dubai
USD/kg
1.86
INR/kg
84.0
Source: Comtrade Database and Personal communication, Dubai
16.
Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port Cost involved in exporting green chillies from India (as per information collected during 2008)
(a) Procurement price*:
Approx. price (Rs. /kg) : 8-12
*Price varies according to variety and month of procurement
(b) Charges for pre cooling, cold storage, packing, transport, etc.(below in table):
Table 12.9: Charges for pre cooling, cold storage, packing, transport, etc.
Particulars
Rs./kg
Precooling and cold storage
4.0
Handling and Packing cost
5.0
Transportation charge to Mumbai Airport
8.0
Total cost
17.0
Source: Estimate of ITS Ltd.
(c) Air freight charges*:
Freight rates for reefer container are as follows:
A. Air Freight Charges – London
INR/KG
Weight : All Weight Grou
DEL/ LON
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
INR 60.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
B. Air Freight Charges – Amsterdam
INR/KG
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ AMS
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 75.00
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
C. Air Freight Charges – Dubai
All Weight Group
DEL/Dubai
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR
General)
INR 74/Kg
INR 62/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 42/Kg
INR 42/Kg
A/F (SCR
0006)
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/K
INR 40/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
D. Air Freight Charges – Doha
All Weight Group
DEL/Doha
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR
General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 65/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR
0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
E. Air Freight Charges – Muscat
All Weight Group
DEL/Muscat
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR
General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 60/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR
0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
F. Air Freight Charges – Singapore
All Weight Group
DEL/Singapore
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR
INR 88/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 44/Kg
INR 39/Kg
INR 39/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
G. Air Freight Charges – Kuala Lampur
All Weight Group
DEL/ Kuala
Lumpur
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR
General)
INR 70/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 53/Kg
INR 53/Kg
A/F (SCR
0006)
INR 45/K
INR 45/Kg
INR 38/Kg
INR 38/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
* It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.