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1.
Introduction
 
Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is most liked and relished fruit of India. Litchi is cultivated in an area of 78 thousand ha and total production is around 497 thousand tons.There is a sizeable increase in acreage and production of litchi in India. Cultivation of litchi has increased from 72 thousand ha in 2008-09 to 78 thousand ha in 2010-11. In terms of production; however, it has increased from 423 to 497 thousand tons. The total production of litchi is concentrated mainly in Bihar, West Bengal, Assam and Jharkhand and to a smaller extent in Tripura, Punjab, Uttarakhand and Orissa.
 
 
Showing the Area Production and Productivity of Litchi in India
 
YEAR
AREA(000’ ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2006-07
65.00
403.00
6.20
2007-08
69.00
418.00
6.10
2008-09
72.00
423.00
5.90
2009-10
74.40
483.30
6.50
2010-11
78.00
497.00
6.40
 
Source : Indian Horticulture Database 2011
 
 
 
 2.
Major Producing States with Production of Last Three Years
 
Bihar is the leading state in litchi production (227.0 thousand tons.), followed by West Bengal (85.1 thousand tons.) and Assam (40.5 thousand tons.).Production ranges from 19.2 thousand tons. in Orissa to 35.9 thousand tons. in Jharkhand. Most plantations in Uttarakhand are young and have yet to start bearing.
 
Area, Production and Productivity of Leading Litchi Growing States in India
 
State
AREA IN (000' HA)
PRODUCTION IN (000' MT)
PRODUCTIVITY (HA/MT)
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Bihar
30.50
216.90
7.10
30.60
215.10
7.00
31.10
227.00
7.30
West Bengal
8.40
81.20
9.70
8.40
82.40
9.80
8.60
85.10
9.90
Assam
4.80
34.90
7.20
5.10
39.20
7.70
5.20
40.50
7.80
Jharkhand
4.30
20.30
4.80
4.30
51.10
12.00
4.30
35.90
8.40
Punjab
1.50
21.30
13.90
1.60
22.40
14.10
1.60
23.90
14.70
Chhatisgarh
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.00
17.80
6.00
3.90
21.40
5.50
Orrisa
4.20
13.00
3.10
4.30
17.10
4.00
4.40
19.20
4.40
Uttrakhand
8.80
15.30
1.70
9.10
15.70
1.70
9.30
18.70
2.00
Tripura
2.80
14.40
5.10
2.80
17.00
6.10
2.90
16.60
5.60
Others
6.60
6.20
0.90
5.20
5.50
1.10
6.30
9.10
1.40
Total
71.90
423.40
5.90
74.40
483.30
6.50
77.60
497.30
6.40
 
Source: Indian Horticulture Database, 2011
 
 
lichi
 
 3.
Showing the Varietal Characteristics of Commercially Grown Litchi
 
Variety
Characteristics
Shahi
Fruits are globous- heart or obtuse in shape. The colour is rose madder and fuchsia purple background with red tubercles at ripening and the weight ranges from 20-25 gms. with T.S.S. of 19-22° brix
Early Bedana
Fruits are oval or heart shaped. The colour is uranium green with carmine red tubercles at maturity and the fruit size is medium, weight ranges from 15 to 18 gms. with T.S.S. of 17.2-19.8° brix
Late Bedana
Fruits are conical in shape. The colour is vermilion to carmine with dark blackish-brown tubercles at maturity and the fruit size is medium, with T.S.S. of 18-20° brix
Bombai
Fruits are obliquely heart shaped. The colour is carmine red and the fruit size is large, and weighs 15-20 gms. with T.S.S. of 17° brix
 
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Enhancing establishment of air layered plants in the field.
  • Adoption of high density planting.
  • Conservation of soil moisture with mulching.
  • Integrated nutrient management.
  • Irrigation frequency to be maintained to avoid fruit cracking.
  • Integrated pest and disease management.
 
5.
Harvesting Season of Crop in Leading States
 
India has unique advantage as litchis start ripening from 15th April in Tripura and harvest season lasts in other states up to end of June, thus giving enough time to exploit litchi importing countries market
 
 
- Peak season
   
 
STATE/UT’S
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
Tripura
Assam
West Bengal
Bihar
Jharkhand                        
Uttarakhand                        
 
*The above graph shows Harvest pattern in leading Litchi growing states
   
6.
Arrival pattern in market
 
The arrival pattern of Litchi in Leading States are given below in the table.
 
S.No.
States
Season of availability
1.
Tripura
15th April to end of April
2.
Assam
1st May to 3rd week of May
3.
West Bengal
1st May to 3rd week of May
4.
Bihar 
3rd week of May to 2nd week of June
5.
Jharkhand
3rd week of May to 2nd week of June
6.
Uttarakhand
2nd week of June to 4th week of June
7.
Punjab 
3rd week of June to last week of June
8.
Himachal Pradesh
3rd week of June to last week of June
 
 
7.
(a) Concentrated Pockets
 
The details of concentrated pockets of Litchi in different states are listed below in table .
 
 
 
Shows Concentrated Pockets o Litchi growing States
 
State
Districts
Bihar
Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Sitamrhi, East Champaran, West Champaran, Katihar, Gopalganj, Siwan, Samastipur, Saran, Sheohar, Darbhanga, Madhubani Purniya,, Begusarai, Saharsa, Bhagalpur, Araria, Kishanganj, Khagariya, Madhepura, Munger
Assam
Bongoigaon, Kamrup, Golpara, Nalbari, Barpeta, Sonitpur, Nagaon, Lakhimpur, Golaghat, Jorahat ,Cachar
West Bengal
Mushirdabad, 24- Parganas, Nadia, 24- Parganas South Malda, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, Hubli
Orrisa
Sundergarh, Sambalpur, Angul, Deogarh
Uttarakhand
Udham Singh Nagar, Champawat, Nainital, Dehradun, Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal,Haridwar
Punjab
Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur
Tripura West Tripura, North Tripura, South Tripura, Dhalai Tripura
 
 
 
(b) Catchment areas of Market
 
Showing the details of catchment areas of market of Litchi in leading states
 
States
Districts (Market)
Blocks
Bihar
Muzaffarpur
Sahebganj, Baruraj, Hursepur, Minapur, Kanti, Paru-I, Paru-II, Kurhani, Sacra, Dholi, Bochacha, Gaihati, Katra, Aurai.
Sitamarhi
Majorganj, Pariharpur, Riga, Bathnaha, Sursnd, Bazpatti, Pupri, Nanpur, Pumra, Belsand, Bairagnia
East champaran
Raxaul, Ramgarhwa, Chiraiya, Dhaka ,Palahi, Mehsi ,Kesriya, Chakia, Areraj, Paharpur.
West Bengal
Murshidabad Suti, Jangipur, Raghunathganj, Lalgola, Bhagwangola,Sagardighi, Jiaganj, Lalbagh, Domkal, Bahranpur, Hariharpura, Belaanga, Nawada ,Bharatpura, Barwan,Khargram
Uttarakhand
Udham Singh Nagar
Rudrapur, Sitarganj, Khatima, Gosukuan, Chakarpar,Senapati, Bichwa, Pant Nagar, Bazpur, Kashipur, Jaspur
Nainital
ManumaHami, Mallital, Tallital.
Dehradun
Tapovan, Haripur, Kaiffi, Rajpur, Kishanpur, Garhi.
Punjab
Gurdaspur
Dhar, Pathankot, Batala, Phongota, Dunera, Sujanpur,Madhopur, Chaki, Jakolar, Fatehgarh, Jaintipur, Bhet
Hoshiarpur Mukerian, Dasuya, Dholbaha, Hazipur, Namoli, Bhamotar,Dadiyal, Garhdiwala, Miani, Phuglana, Mahalpur, Lalwan
UttarPradesh
Saharanpur
Badshahrbagh, Raipur, Muzzafarabad, Kalsia, Behat,Chilkana, Rampur, Sarsawa, Pilkhani, Bhayla, Deoband, Gangoh, Lukhnauti, Nanauta
 
 
8.
Criteria and Description of Grades
 
According to Agmark standards Litchi is classified into following classes, the table is given below :
 
Details of various classes of Litchi as per AGMARK Standards
 
Grade designation
Grade requirements
Grade tolerances
1
2
3
Extra class
Litchis must be of superior quality. They musthave the shape, development and colouring that aretypical of the variety and/or varietal type. Theymust be free of defects, with the exception of veryslight superficial defects, provided these do notaffect the general appearance of the produce, thequality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
5% by number or weight of Litchis not satisfying the requirements for the grade, but meeting those of Class Igrade or exceptionally coming within the tolerances of that grade.
Class I
Litchis must be of good quality. They must becharacteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The following slight defects however may beallowed provided these do not affect the generalappearance of the produce, the quality, the keepingquality and presentation in the package.- slight defects in shape- slight defects in colouring;- slight skin defects Provided these do not exceed a total area of 0.25sq.cm
10% by number or weight of Litchis not satisfying
the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of Class II grade or, exceptionally coming within the tolerances of that grade
Class II

This grade includes Litchis which do not quality for inclusion in the higher grades, but satisfy the minimum requirements specified in general characteristics. The following defects may be allowed, provided, the Litchis retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation.- defects in shape,- defects in colouring,- skin blemishes provided these do not exceed a total area of 0.5 sq. cm.

10% by number or weight of Litchis not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting the minimum requirements.
 
 
 
PROVISION CONCERNING SIZE
 
Size is determined by the maximum equatorial diameter.
 
Grade
Minimum Equatorial diameter (in mm.)
Extra class 33
Class I 28
Class II 23
 
 
9.
Packaging & its details
 
(a) For Export
 
Normally Corrugated Fibre Board boxes of capacity 2 kg and 4 kg are used for export The detailed specifications of CFB are given below in the table.
 
 
Specification details for Corrugated Fibre Board (CFB) Boxes for packing Litchis for exports
 
Characteristics Requirements
Dimension 2 KG 4 KG
Material of construction 3 Ply Corrugated fibre board 3 Ply Corrugated fibre board
Grammage( g/m sq),Min (outer to inner) *230/140/140 *230/140/140
Bursting strength kg/cm sq, Min 6.00 10.00
Puncture resistance, ozs inches/tear inch Min 100 250
Compression strength, kgf , Min 225 350
Cobb (30 minutes) g/m sq, Max 130 130
 
* Outer ply of duplex board
 
Source: Quality Assurance Manual for Export of Litchis, APEDA, New Delhi
 
 
 
(B) For Domestic Market
 
For domestic markets also, the litchis are packed in Corrugated Fiber Board boxes.
 
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Litchi grown in Bihar and West Bengal is transported to the big cities for marketing.
  • Patna and Kolkata are the most important markets for dispatch of Litchi.
  • Litchi produced in Bihar and West Bengal find markets in Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Delhi, Chandigarh, and Lucknow etc.
 
 
11.
Exports and export potential
 
A. Domestic strengths for exporting Litchi
 
Domestic strengths for exporting Litchi from India are detailed below:
  • India is the largest producer of litchi in the world.
  • India produces superior litchi varieties having high pulp to stone ratio and with high yields.
  • India has been gifted with unique ripening pattern of litchi, as litchi starts ripening from 15th April in Tripura, 1st week of May in Assam and West Bengal; 3rd week of May in Bihar & Jharkhand, and season ends after ripening terminates in Punjab in last week of June. Thus, India has 2.5 months time to export litchi.
  • India is in advantageous position with regard to geographical location compared to Thailand and China, as India is nearer to Europe and Gulf countries for exporting litchies to these countries.
  • India has not to compete with Madagascar, South Africa and Australia as these countries produce litchi during November to February months, nor India is to compete with Israel as its litchi arrives during July to October months.
  • Indian litchi is earliest to arrive, as litchi ripens 15 days earlier than Thailand and Chinese litchies ripen one month later, i.e. in June. Thus during this period there is comparatively less competition from China for exporting litchi to European markets.
  • Agri Export Zones have already been set up in litchi growing areas of Bihar, West Bengal and Uttarakhand states.
  • Pack houses for exporting litchi are already available in Bihar, West Bengal and Uttarakhand states.
  • A specialized fumigation chamber has been set up in Malda area of West Bengal.
 
B. Exports
 
Export of litchi has increased from 161.5 tons in 2007-08 to 319.93 tons in 2011-12 (APEDA database).
 
 
 
Export of Litchi in the Last Five Years
 
Years
Qty. (ton's)
Value(in Rs. Lakh)
2007-08
161.5
63.43
2008-09
1546.49
155.94
2009-10
545.38
88.92
2010-11
1186.1
135.86
2011-12
319.93
38.77
 
Source : APEDA Database
 
 
 
C. Measures for enhancing competitiveness for exporting Litchi
 
Following measures are likely to enhance competitiveness of India in exporting Litchi :
  • To exploit export of organic litchi in foreign markets, its cultivation in Tripura and Assam needs to be encouraged and to facilitate it, packhouses need to be established in a phased manner. Side by side markets for organic litchi need to be identified.
  • Litchi producing areas in Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab are near to Amritsar international airport. Export of litchi from this area can be enhanced by setting up of packhouse in the area.
  • Technology for CA and MA storage of litchi needs to be standardized perfected so that shelf life of litchi can be extended. Then, litchi to nearer areas like Gulf countries can be sent by reefer containers through MA cartons, if perfected.
  • Residue analysis laboratory need to be set up in at least Muzaffarpur,Bihar to begin with.
 
12.
Storage
 
Temperature:
2-3°C
Relative Humidity:.
90-95%
Storage Period:.
3-5 weeks.
Sensitivity to refrigeration and ethylene.
 
13.
Documents required for exports
 
a).Documents related to goods
  • Invoice
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of origin
 
b).Documents related to shipment
  • Mate Receipt
  • Shipping Bill
  • Bill of handing
  • Airway Bill
 
c) Documents related to Payment
  • Letter of Credit (L/C)
  • Bill of Exchange
 
d) Documents related to quality of goods
  • Phytosanitary Certificate
  • GLOBALGAP Certification
  • Health Certificate
 
e) Organic Certification
  • Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
 
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
  • GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
 
g) Other Document
  • Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.
Chain of events which happen up to shipment
 
FLOW DIAGRAM OF ESSENTIAL OPERATIONS OF LICTHI EXPORTERS/PACKERS
  • Receipt of raw material at Packhouse
  • Sorting and grading Weighment
  • Sulphur treatment Packing and coding Palletization/strapping of boxes Storage
  • Container loading
  • Transportation
 
 
15.
Cost Calculation from Harvest to Packhouse to Port
 
The cost involved in exporting litchi is as follows (as per information collected during 2008):
 
(a) Procurement price*:
 
Variety Approx. price (in Rs./kg)
  • Shahi (Grade A) : 55-60
 
*Price of litchis varies according to variety and month of procurement
 
 
 
(b) Charges for fumigation, packing, transport, etc.(below in table):
 
Particulars:
Rs/kg
Charges for fumigation , pre cooling, cold storage
5.0
Packaging cost
12.0
Transportation to Mumbai Airport
15.0
Total
32.0
 
Source: Litchi Exporters Association, Nainital, Uttarakhand.
 
 
 
(c) Air freight charges*:
 
Freight rates for reefer container are as follows:
 
A. Air Freight Charges – London
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ LON
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
INR 60.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
 
 
 
B. Air Freight Charges – Amsterdam
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ AMS
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 75.00
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
 
 
 
C. Air Freight Charges – Dubai
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Dubai
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 74/Kg
INR 62/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 42/Kg
INR 42/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
AWB Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
D. Air Freight Charges – Doha
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Doha
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 65/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
E. Air Freight Charges – Muscat
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Muscat
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 60/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
F. Air Freight Charges – Singapore
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Singapore
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 88/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 44/Kg
INR 39/Kg
INR 39/Kg
AWB Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
G. Air Freight Charges – Kuala Lampur
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ Kuala Lumpur
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 70/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 53/Kg
INR 53/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 38/Kg
INR 38/Kg
AWB Rs. 750 per AWB
 
* It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.