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ONION back
1.
Introduction
 
Onion (Allium cepa L) is extremely important vegetable crop not only for internal consumption but also as highest foreign exchange earner among the fruits and vegetables. It occupies an area of 1064 thousand ha, with production of 15118 thousand tons. The export of onion during 2011 -12 was 13,09,863.26 thousand tons with a value of Rs 1,722.85 crores.
 
 
World Scenario
 
India is the 2nd largest producer of onion, in the world next only to China but the productivity of onion in India is very low i.e. 14.21 tons/ ha as compared to China and other countries like , Egypt, Netherlands, & Iran etc.
 
 
Showing Major Onion Producing Countries of the World
 
County
Area (000ha)
Production (000MT)
PRODUCTIVITY ( MT/HA)
%age SHARE IN WORLD TOTAL PRODUCTION
China
930.21
20507.76
22.0
26.99
India
1064.00
15118.00
14.2
19.90
Pakistan
124.70
1701.10
13.6
2.24
Bangladesh
117.56
872.08
7.4
1.15
Indonesia
109.47
1048.23
9.6
1.38
Viet
101.70
355.30
3.5
0.47
Russian
88.00
1536.30
17.5
2.02
Myanmar
78.90
1137.90
14.4
1.50
Brazil
67.25
1556.00
23.1
2.05
Turkey
62.69
1900.00
30.3
2.50
Other Countries
1227.02
30244.54
24.6
39.81
World + (Total)
3971.51
75977.21
19.1
100.0
 
Source: Indian Horticulture Database, 2011
 
 
 
 
India Scenario
 
There is a sizeable increase in acreage and production of onion in India.In terms of area,there is an increase from 768 thousand ha in 2006-07 to 1064 thousand ha in 2010-11, while in terms of production it has increased from 10,847.00 to 15,118.00 thousand tons. The details are given below in table.
 
Showing the Area Production and Productivity of Onion in India
 
YEAR
AREA(000’ ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2006-07
768.00
10,847.00
14.1
2007-08
821.00
13,900.00
16.9
2008-09
834.00
13,565.00
16.3
2009-10
756.20
12,158.80
16.1
2010-11
1064.00
15,118.00
14.2
 
Source: Indian Horticulture Database - 2011
 
 
 
 2.

Showing the Area Production and Productivity of Onion in India

 
Maximum onion production takes place in Maharashtra (4905.0 thousand tons) state followed by Karnataka (2592.2 thousand tons), Gujarat (1514.1 thousand tons.), Bihar (1082.0 thousand tons.), Madhya Pradesh (1021.5 thousand tons.) and Andhra Pradesh (812.6 thousand tons). In Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh it is grown to some extent i.e. 494.2, 453.9 and 368.6 thousand tons respectively. The details are given below in table.
 

Area, Production and Productivity of Leading Onion Growing States in India

State
AREA IN (000' HA)
PRODUCTION IN (000' MT)
PRODUCTIVITY (HA/MT)
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Area
Production
Pdy.
Maharashtra
250.00
3932.50
15.70
200.00
3146.00
15.70
415.00
4905.00
11.80
Karnataka
165.10
3031.80
18.40
141.30
2266.20
16.00
190.50
2592.20
13.60
Gujarat
57.60
1409.60
24.50
43.40
1078.60
24.90
62.00
1514.10
24.40
Bihar
51.60
946.60
18.30
53.00
972.00
18.30
53.30
1082.00
20.30
Madhya Pradesh
53.00
881.80
16.60
57.30
952.30
16.60
58.30
1021.50
17.50
Andhra Pradesh
39.00
662.60
17.00
39.00
662.60
17.00
47.80
812.60
17.00
Rajasthan
41.00
369.10
9.00
45.00
742.50
16.50
49.00
494.20
10.10
Haryana
18.80
347.90
18.50
18.40
330.30
17.90
22.20
453.90
20.50
Others
158.00
1982.60
12.55
158.70
2008.30
12.65
165.80
2242.20
13.52
Total
834.20
13564.50
16.30
756.20
12158.80
16.10
1063.80
15117.70
14.20
 
Source: Indian Horticulture Database, 2011
 
 
 
 
3.
Description Of Commercially Grown Varieties
  Shows The Varietal Characteristics Of Commercially Grown Onion Varieties
 
Variety
Characteristics
Agrifound Dark Red
The crop is global round in shape, big in size and dark red in colour.T.S.S. is 12- 13 brix and storage quality is medium.
Agrifound Light Red The crop is global round in shape, big in size and light red in colour.T.S.S. is 13- 14 brix and storage quality is good.
Agrifound Rose he crop is flattish round in shape, 2.5-3.5 cm in size and scarlet red in colour.T.S.S. is 16-18 brix and storage quality is good.
Agrifound Red The crop is 5-6 bulblets clump in shape, 2-2.5 cm in size and brick red in colour.T.S.S. is 9-10 brix and storage quality is good.
Pusa Red The crop is flattish round in shape and red in colour.Storage quality is very good.
 
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Use of Hybrid Seeds
  • Nutrient and Water Management
  • Plant Protection
  • Weed Management
  • Better Post Harvest Management
 
5.
Harvesting Season Of Crop In Leading States
 
 
- Lean season
- Peak season
   
 
State
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
Maharashtra
Gujarat
Bihar
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh                        
Madhya Pradesh                        
Rajasthan                        
Haryana                        
Uttar Pradesh                        
 
 
*The Above Graph Shows Harvest Pattern In Leading Onion Growing States
  Source: Indian Horticulture Database
   
6.
Arrival Pattern in Market
The requirement of onion is almost constant throughout the year and availability of fresh onion is limited to 7 or 8 months and there is lean periods when prices shoot up because of poor storage conditions available in the country. The main availability seasons in different parts of country are given in table. There are three main seasons of onion production namely (i) Kharif crop (ii) late Kharif (iii) Rabi crop
 
Details of Arrival Pattern of Onion in Leading States
 
S.No.
States
Cropping season
Availability
1.
Maharashtra and Gujarat
Kharif crop Late Kharif Rabi
October – December January – March April – June
2.
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
Early Kharif Kharif Rabi
August October – November March – April
3.
Rajasthan,Bihar,Uttar Pradesh, Haryana,Punjab,West Bengal and Orissa
Kharif Rabi
November – December May - June
 
 
7.
(a) Concentrated Pockets
 
 
Shows Concentrated Pockets of Onion Growing States
 
State
Districts
Maharashtra
Nasik, Ahmednagar ,Pune, Sholapur
Karnataka
Dharwad ,Chitradurg, Gadag, Haveri, Bagalkot, Davengere
Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool, Medak, Rangareddy, Cuddapah, Mehboobnagar.
Uttar Pradesh
Varanasi, Patan, Kanpur ,Lucknow, Allahabad, Faizabad
Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore, Perambadur, Namakkal ,Dindigul Anna, Thirichirapalli, Periyar
Gujarat
Bhavnagar, Surendranagar
Punjab Ropar and Ludhiana
 
 
 
(b) Catchment Areas of Market
 
Showing the Details of Catchment Areas of Market of Onion in Leading States
 
States
Districts (Market)
Blocks
Maharashtra
Nasik
Kalvan, Peint, Igatpuri, Sinnar, Niphad, Yeola, Nandgaon, Satara, Furgana, Dindori, Melgaon,
Ahmednagar
Srirampur, Sangamner, Akola, Rahuri, Nevasa, Parner, Pathardi, Srigonda, Karjat
Pune
Junnar, Ambegaon, Ghod, Rajgurunagar, Wadgaonsirur, Mulshi, Welhe, Purandhar, Bhor, Baramati, Indapur, Daund, Sasw
Sholapur
Karmala, Barsi, Madha, Mohol, Mangalwedha, Singole, Malsiras, Pandharpur, Akalko
Karnataka
Dharwar
Hubbali, Kundgol, Navalgund, Yadvad, Kalghatgi, Kargod, Kamdali
Bagalkot
Jamkhandi, Mudhol, Hungund, Badami.
Devengere
Harpana, Lalli, Harihar, Vasana, Honnali, Channagiri, Nyamati, Matti.
Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool
Emmiganuru, Kappagalu, Alur, Adoni, Atmakpur, Pattikonda, Dhone, Koilkuntla, Banganpalli, Allagadda
Mehboobnagar
Kollur, Keshampat, Mughalgidda, Karnul, Wanparti, Atmakur, Gadwall, Alampur, Kolhapur, Achampet, Kondangol
Rangareddy
Marpali, Vikarabad, Tandur, Pargi, Ibranimpatan, Shahabad, Doma, Maisaram, Miryan, Nancherla
Uttar Prades
Varanasi
Sindhora, Babatpur, Phulpur, Cholapur, Mirzaurad,
Kanpur
Bithurh, Maharajpur, Narwal, Sarsaul, Bindhnu, Bhimser
Lucknow
Mal, Rahimabad, Bhauli, Itaunja, Mahoma, Nagram, Nigohan, Sisendi, Bijnaur, Utrahthia, Gosainganj, Jugganar, Chanhat, Bani, Alamnagar, Kakori, Bhauli
Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore
Muttuppalaiyam, Avinashi, Tiruppur, Palladam, Udumallaip pettai, Pollachi, Valparai.
Thiruchirapalli
Manachanallur, Musili, Thothiyam, Lalgudi, Turayur, Manap prai, Srirangam
Gujarat
Bhavnagar
Botad, Valbhipur, Umrala, Gadhda, Gariadhar, Palitana, Man dir, Ningara
Punjab
Ludhiana
Raikot, Samrata, Khannakhamanoi, Paayal, Nurpur, Bhundri
 
 
8.
Criteria and Description of Grades
 
According to AGMARK standards Onions are classified into following classes :
 
Showing AGMARK Standards and grade designation of Onions
 
Grade Designation
Grade Requirements
Provision Concerning Sizing
Grade Tolerances
1
2
3
4
Extra class
Onion shall be of superior quality. They shall be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The bulbs shall be: - firm and compact; - unsprouted (free from externally visible shoots); - properly cleaned; - free from swelling caused by abnormal development; - free of root tufts, however, onions harvested before complete maturity, root tufts are allowed. They shall be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial blemishes, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
As per table
‘A’
5% by number or weight of onion not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of class I grade or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances ofthat grade.
Class I
Onion shall be of good quality. They shall be characteristics of the variety and/or commercial type. The bulbs shall be: - firm and compact; - unsprouted(free from externally visible shoots); - properly cleaned; - free from swelling caused by abnormal development; - free of root tufts, however, onions harvested before complete maturity, root tufts are allowed. The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. - a slight defect in shape. - a slight defect in colouring; - light staining which does not affect the last dried skin protecting the flesh, provided it does not cover more than one-fifth of the bulb’s surface. - Superficial cracks in and absence of part of the outer skins, provided the flesh is protected.
As per table
‘A’
10% by number or weight of onion not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of class II grade or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that grade.
Class II
Onions which do not qualify for inclusion in higher grade but satisfy the minimum requirements. They shall be reasonably firm. The following defects, however, may be allowed, provided the onion retain their essential characteristics as regard the quality, the keeping quality and presentation. - defects in shape; - defects in colouring; - early signs of shoot growth visible from outside(not more than 10% by number or weight per unit of presentation); - traces of rubbing; - slight marking caused by parasites or disease; - small healed cracks; - slight bruising, healed, unlikely to impair keeping qualities; - root tufts; - stains which do not affect the last dried skin
protecting the flesh provided they do not cover more than half the bulb’s surface; - Cracks in the outer skins and the absence of a part of the outer skins from not more than onethird of the bulb’s surface, provided the flesh is not damaged.
As per table
‘A’
10% by number or weight of onion not satisfying the requirements of the grade but meeting the minimum requirements.
 
 
 
PROVISION CONCERNING SIZE
 
Size is determined by the maximum diameter of the equatorial section, in accordance with the following table:
 
Provision Concerning Size
 
Size Code
Diameter (in mm.)
Difference between the diameter of the smallest and the largest onion in the same package (in mm.)
A
10-20
5
B
21-40
15
C
41-70
20
 
 
9.
Packaging & its details
 
(a) For Exports
 
Packing size wholly depends on the importing country requirement. Some of the netted poly bag sizes have been given below for different countries. Generally there are 60 fills per 10kg bag of onion.
 
 
 
Showing the packing specifications of some countries
 
S.No
Importing Nation
Pack size
1
Malaysia and Indonesia
10 kg
2
Srilanka
25 Kg
3
Singapore
8 Kg
4
Philippines
20 Kg
5
Gulf countries
5 Kg, 10 Kg, 15 Kg and 20 Kg
 
Source: NIAM, Jaipur
 
 
Size of Onion Required by Different Countries
 
 
S.No
Country
Size(mm)
1
Middle East and Gulf(Dubai, Sharjah, Doha, Muscat, Bahrain, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait)
40 – 60
2
Malaysia, Singapore, Port Kelang & African Ports
25 – 30
3
Sri Lanka
25 – 30
4
Bangladesh, Pakistan & Nepal
25 – 30
5
Europe
60 – 70
6
Japan
60 – 70
Source: MSAMB, Pune
 
 
(b) For domestic markets
 
For domestic markets, onions are packed in gunny bags.
 
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Onion produced in Maharashtra and Gujarat finds major markets in Bhopal, Jaipur, Lucknow and Delhi from where it is distributed in Northern states like HP, Uttarakhand, J& K , Punjab and Haryana.
  • Onion produced in Southern states (like Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh) are consumed in Southern states and nearby markets.
 
11
Exports and Export Potential
 
A. Domestic strengths for Exporting Onion
 
Domestic strengths for exporting onion are detailed below:
  • India is next to China in onion production.
  • Production of onion is almost throughout the year barring one or two months.
  • Wide varieties of onions are cultivated in the country.
  • More than 45% of total onion production takes place in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh states which is very conducive for exports
  • Three Agri Export Zones have been established in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh states.
  • Export facility centre along with modern packhouse has been set up to facilitate export of onions at Indpur near Pune.
  • An irradiation unit has been established at Lasalgaon (Nasik) to inhibit sprouting in onions.
  • Onion growers have been trained on scientific farming of onion in Maharashtra and in Karnataka (rose onion growers).
  • In Maharashtra state, MSAMB has disbursed subsidy to farmers for developing onion storage structures for prolonged shelf life
  • There is a good research support, as NRC for Onion and National Horticulture Research and Development Foundation are located in Maharashtra it self.
 
 
B. Exports
 
Export of onions from India has increased at a fast rate in last five years. Export has increased from 10,08,606.50 tons in 2007-08 to 13,09,863.26tons in 2011-12. An increase of 30% in exports has been recorded given below in the table :
 
 
 

Export of onion in Last Five Years

 
Year
Quantity(tons)
Value(in Rs. Lakh)
2007-08
10,08,606.50
1,03,577.88
2008-09
16,70,186.32
1,82,752.21
2009-10
16,64,922.37
2,31,942.97
2010-11
11,82,324.21
1,77,928.61
2011-12
13,09,863.26
1,72,285.37
 
Source: DGCIS
 
 
 
 
 
Region wise Export of Onion for Last 3 Years :
 
Region Name
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Quantity in (MT)
Value in (Lacs)
Quantity in (MT)
Value in (Lacs)
Quantity in (MT)
Value in (Lacs)
South Asia
1037334.13
146474.71
590640.61
83726.36
583252.09
71958.18
ASEAN
354579.34
50427.41
366162.66
64634.85
400493.86
59997.11
WANA
235752.94
28612.68
201793.04
25756.19
289559.90
34893.79
East Africa
16908.44
3186.43
11343.37
1938.10
16953.03
2796.09
NE Asia
9233.07
1288.88
3756.72
634.41
9511.55
1340.98
EU_27
7760.41
1266.29
7706.14
1098.58
7665.04
1017.78
Others
3354.04
686.55
921.66
140.14
2427.78
281.45
Total
1664922.37
231942.95
1182324.20
177928.63
1309863.25
172285.38
 
Source: DGCIS Annual Export
 
 
 
C.
 Measures for Enhancing Competitiveness for Exporting Onion
 
Following steps must be taken up on priority for enhancing competitiveness for exporting Onions:
  • Domestic production needs to be enhanced (by adoption of high yielding varieties and modern agricultural practices) with consistency, so that export of onions can be made on regular basis. Because, exporting on regular basis helps in increasing volumes and farmers also get remunerative prices.
  • Contract farming needs to be adopted for export purposes.
  • Expansion of area under onion in early kharif, kharif and late kharif needs to be taken up so that quality onions are available for export on regular basis
  • Farmers need to be supported (in addition to existing support) for developing storage facilities, for enhancing storage period.
  • Ventilated storage godowns at shipyards need to be constructed for enhancing export of quality onions.
  • For enhancing competitiveness for export, India must improve the quality of onions and also take up branding of the product.
 
12.
Storage Fresh
 
Temperature:
0°C
Relative Humidity:.
65 - 70 %.
Storage Period:.
3 - 5 months
Sensitivity to Low Temperature.
 
13.
Documents Required for Exports
 
a).Documents related to goods
  • Invoice
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of origin
 
b).Documents related to shipment
  • Mate Receipt
  • Shipping Bill
  • Bill of handing
  • Airway Bill
 
c) Documents related to Payment
  • Letter of Credit (L/C)
  • Bill of Exchange
 
d) Documents related to quality of goods
  • Phytosanitary Certificate
  • GLOBALGAP Certification
  • Health Certificate
 
e) Organic Certification
  • Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
 
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
  • GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
 
g) Other Document
  • Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.

Chain of Events Which Happen up to Shipment

 
FLOW DIAGRAM OF ESSENTIAL OPERATIONS OF ONION EXPORTERS/PACKERS
  • Transported to Packhouse
  • Unloading Sorting & Grading Packed in netted poly bag sizes Precooling
  • Cold Storage
  • Palletizing
  • Refrigerated trucks
  • Shipment
 
 
15.
Cost Calculation from Harvest to Packhouse to Port
 
Cost estimates for exports of onions from India (as per information collected during 2008)
  • Procurement Price*:
  • Approx. Price (Rs. /kg) : 3.0
 
*Price of onion varies according to variety, month of procurement
 
 
 
(b) Charges for Treatment, Packing, Transport, etc.(below in table):
 
Particulars:
40' container (25000 kg)
Nylon Bag (Capacity: 20Kg) Rs. 8/- per bag
8100
Cost of loading & unloading
5000
Cost of pallets
2500
Local transportation
17000
Container Transportation(JNPT - Vashi - JNPT)
7000
Terminal Handling Charges
14885
Total
54485 or Rs. 2.17/kg
 
Source: MSAMB, Maharashtra