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POMEGRANATE back
1.
Introduction
 
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The total area under cultivation of pomegranate in India is 107.00 thousand ha and production is around 743.00 thousands tons.
 
 
 
Maharashtra is the leading producer of pomegranate followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Ganesh, Bhagwa, Ruby, Arakta and Mridula are the different varieties of pomegranates produced in Maharashtra. In India, pomegranate is commercially cultivated in Solapur, Sangli, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Dhule, Aurangabad, Satara, Osmanabad and Latur districts of Maharashtra; Bijapur, Belgaum and Bagalkot districts of Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
 
 
Indian Scenario
 
Accoridng to the data published by National Horticulture Board of India there is a undersized decrease in the area of pomegranate cultivation in India from 109.00 thousand ha in 2008-09 to 107.00 thousand ha in 2010-11; similarly, the production has decreased from 807.00 thousand tons to 743.00 thousand tons during the same period.
 
 
Showing the Area, Production and Productivity of Pomegranate in India
 
Years
AREA(000’ ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2008-09
109.00
807.00
7.40
2009-10
125.00
820.00
6.60
2010-11
107.00
743.00
6.90
 
Source : National Horticulture Board -2011
 
 
 
2.
Major Producing States With Production of Last Three Years
 
The total production of pomegranate is concentrated mainly in the Western Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan in India. Maharashtra is the leading State with 82 thousands hactor area under pomegranate cultivation, followed by Karnataka and Gujarat with 13.6 thousand ha and 5.8 thousand ha respectively, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu stood at fourth and fifth position with. 2.8 and 0.5 thousand ha of pomegranate cultivation in India.
 
 
Area, Production and Productivity of Leading Pomegranate Growing States in India
 
State wise Area, Production and Productivity of  Pomegranate
State
Area in 000’ ha
Production in (000’ MT )
Productivity (ha/MT)
% Share of Production
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Maharashtra
82.00
550.00
6.71
98.90
555.50
5.62
82.00
492.00
6.00
66.21
Karnataka
14.30
138.10
9.66
13.20
138.50
10.49
13.60
142.60
10.49
19.19
Gujarat
4.00
39.30
9.83
4.40
45.60
10.36
5.80
60.30
10.40
8.11
Andhra Pradesh
6.50
64.70
9.95
5.60
56.40
10.07
2.80
27.80
9.93
3.74
Tamil Nadu
0.40
10.00
25.00
0.40
17.50
43.75
0.50
12.70
25.40
1.71
Others
2.00
5.10
2.55
2.50
6.90
2.76
2.60
7.70
2.96
1.04
Total
109.20
807.20
7.39
125.00
820.30
6.56
107.30
743.10
6.93
100.00
 
Source : National Horticulture Board -2011
 
 
 
3.
Description of Commercially Grown Varieties
Showing the varietal characteristics of commercially grown Pomegranates
 
 
Variety/ Type
Characteristics
Ganesh
This variety has pinkish yellow to reddish yellow rind colour, having light pink arils and soft seeds. Fruit weighs between 225-250 gms with medium T.S.S.
Ruby
The fruit skin is red in colour and weighs between 225-275 gms. The grains are soft, having high T.S.S.
Arakta
Fruits are dark red in colour with soft seeds and with high T.S.S.
Bhagwa
The fruit is glossy red in colour with soft seeds and high T.S.S.
 
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Using disease free and quality plant material of improved cultivars.
  • Adoption of high planting density.
  • Proper canopy management.
  • Integrated nutrient and water management.
  • Keeping proper load of fruits on the tree.
  • Timely control of pests and diseases by adopting IPM practices.
 
5.
Harvesting Season of Crop in Leading States
 
Harvest season of pomegranate is depicted below (in 12 months). Because of adopting a number of bahar treatments, pomegranate in Maharashtra and Gujarat states is available throughout the year
 
 
 
 
-Lean Period
-Peak Period
- Throughout Year
   
 
STATE/UT’S
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
Maharashtra
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh
 
Gujarat
 
*The above graph showing harvest pattern in leading Pomegranate growing states.
   
6.
Arrival pattern in market
 
Pomegranates are available almost throughout the year. With the adoption of bahar treatment it’s harvest can be tailored according to demand.
 
 
 
Details of arrival pattern of pomegranate according to bahar treatment
 
S.No.
Bahar
Flowering Time
Period of Harvest
1. Mrig June-August November-March
2. Hasta October- November February-May
3. Ambe January-February June - August
 
 
7.
(a) Concentrated Pockets
 
The details of concentrated pockets of pomegranate in different states are given below in table. In Andhra Pradesh pomegranate cultivation has started mainly in Anantpur district..
 
 
 
Showing concentrated pockets of Pomegranate in India.
 
State
Districts
Maharashtra
Solapur, Nasik, Sangli, Ahmadnagar, Pune , Satara
Karnataka
Bijapur, Bagalkot, Belgaum
Gujarat
Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad, Sabar Kantha
Andhra Pradesh
Anantpur
 
 
 
(b) Catchment Areas of Market
 
Showing the details of catchment Areas of Markets of Pomegranate in Leading States
 
States
Districts (Market)
Blocks
Maharashtra Solapur Karmala, Barsi, Madha, Mohol, Mangalwedha, Singole, Malsira, Pandharpur, Akalkot.
Nasik Kalvan, Peint, Igatpuri, Sinnar, Niphad, Yeola, Nandgaon, Satana Furgana, Dindori, Melgaon
Sangli Atpadi, Khanapur, Islampur, Shirala, Valva, Tasgaon, Kavathe, Mahankal, Jath, Miraj
Ahmednagar Srirampur, Sangamner, Akola, Rahuri, Nevasa, Parner, Pathardi, Srigonda,
Pune Junnar, Ambegaon, Ghod, Rajgurunagar, Wadgaon, Sirur, Mulshi, Welhe, Purandhar, Bhor, Baramati, Indapur, Daund, Saswad
Satara Mahabaleshwar, Khandala, Wai, Phaltan, Koregaon, Khata, Patan, Karad, Vadug.
Karnataka Bijapur Indi, Sindgi, Basavna Bagevadi, Muddebihal, Tikota.
Belgaum Athni, Arkali, Chikodi, Mukeri, Bailhongal, Ramdurg
Bagalkot Jamkhandi,Mudhol,Hungund,Badami.
Andhra Pradesh Anantpur Guntakal, Gooty, Rayalacheruve, Uravakonda, Kanekallu, Rayadurg, Kalyandurg, Kambadur, Manakasira, Nallamada.
Gujarat Bhavnagar Botad, Gadhda, Valbhipur, Umrala, Mandir, Gariadhar, Palitana, Talaja, Chogha, Vaibhipur.
Ahmedabad Mandal, Rampura, Samand, Bavia, Dholka, Dhandhkulla, Ranapur.
Sabar- Kantha Vijarnagar, Khedbrahma, Vadali, Idar, Bhiloda, Talod, Dhansura, Bayad, Malpur, Meghraj, Bhiloda
 
 
8.
Criteria and description of grades
 
Details of grade designation and sizing of pomegranate as per AGMARK standard
 
Grade Designation
Grade Requirements
Grade Tolerances
1
2
3
Extra class
Pomegranate in this class must be of superior quality. They must have the shape, development and colouring that are typical of the variety and/or commercial type. They must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
5% by number or weight of omegranates not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of class I grade or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that
grade.
Class I
Pomegranates in this class must be of good quality. They must be characteristics of the variety and/or commercial type. The following slight defects may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
- a slight defect in shape.
- a slight defect in colouring;
- slight skin defects(i.e. scratches,scars,scraps and blemishes) not exceeding 5% of the total surface area
10% by number or weight of pomegranates not satisfying the requirements of the class, but meeting those of class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that grade.
Class II
This class includes pomegranates which do not qualify for inclusion in higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements. Following defects may be there provided the pomegranates retain their essential characteristics as regard the quality, the keeping quality and presentation:
- defects in shape;
- defects in colouring
- skin defects(i.e., scratches ,scars, scrapes and blemishes), not exceeding 10% of the total surface area
10% by number or weight of pomegranates not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting the minimum requirements.
 
 
 
PROVISION CONCERNING SIZING
 
Size is determined by the weight or maximum diameter of the equatorial section of the fruit, in accordance with the following table:
 
Details of sizing in Pomegranate Fruits
 
Size Code
Weight in grams (minimum)
Diameter in mm (minimum)
A 400 90
B 350 80
C 300 70
D 250 60
E 200 50
 
 
9.
Packaging & its details
 
(a) For Export Market
 
Usually for packing pomegranates for export purposes, a cardboard corrugated fibreboard box of 4.0 or 5.0 kg capacity is used. The dimensions of such boxes depending upon the capacity are:
 
S.No.
4 Kg Box
5 Kg Box
1. 375 x 275 x 100 mm 480 x 300 x 100 mm
 
The details specifications are given below in the table : 
 
 
Specification details for Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) Boxes for packing Pomegranates for Exports
 
Specification
Ring & Flap Tuck in type
RSC (regular slotted container)
Slide type
Material of Construction 5 Ply CFB 3 Ply CFB 5 Ply CFB
Grammage gm/m2 (outer to inner) *230X140X 140X140X140 *230X140X 140X140X140 *230X140X 140X140X140
Bursting strength kg/cm2 Min 10 Min 10 Min 10
Puncture resistance, inches/tear inch Min 250 Min 250 Min 250
Compression strength, kgf Min 350 Min 350 Min 350
Cobb (30 min g/m2) Max 130 Max 130 Max 130
 
*Outer ply of white duplex board
 
Source: Post- Harvest Manual for Export of Pomegranates, APEDA, New Delhi.
 
 
(b) For Domestic Marketst
 
For domestic markets also, the Pomegranate is packed in Corrugated Fiber Board boxes, according to their weight.
 
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Pomegranates grown in different parts of country are transported to the big cities for marketing.
  • The fruits produced in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu find market in Mumbai, Nagpur and Kolkata.
  • The important whole sale markets of pomegranate in India are Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Pune and Ahmedabad. Pomegranates for these big markets are usually collected at the central places in all pomegranate growing areas.
  • From Mumbai and Kolkata ports the pomegranate is exported to the destination markets.
 
 
11.
Exports and export potential
 
A. Domestic Strengths for Exporting Pomegranate
 
Domestic strengths for exporting pomegranate are given in the following points:-
  • India is the largest producer of pomegranates in the world.
  • India produces finest varieties of pomegranate having soft seeds, very less acids and very attractive colour of the fruits and grains.
  • With adoption of different “bahars”, India can supply pomegranates almost throughout the year.
  • Maximum cultivation of pomegranate is in states of Maharashtra and North Western Karnataka which are very close to the western port of Mumbai for exporting to Gulf and European countries.
  • Quality of pomegranate is much superior to Spain and Iran in edible quality and attractiveness.
  • Agri Export Zone for enhancing exports of pomegranate has been established in Maharashtra state.
  • There is strong research support for scientific cultivation of pomegranate like National Research Center for Pomegranate, Solapur, MPKV, Rahuri in Maharashtra and IIHR, Bangalore in Karnataka state.
  • Pomegranate co-operative societies from Maharashtra state have formed an apex cooperative namely MAHA ANAR.
  • Bhagwa variety has high acceptance in European market.
  • Pomegranate export facility center is being set up/has been set up in Baramati area with mechanical handling system.
  • Farmers have been trained for export quality production and have registered with GLOBALGAP certification.
  • MSAMB has recently obtained brand name i.e. “MAHAPOM”.
 
B. Exports
 
Export of pomegranate has decreased in quantity from 35175.17 tons in 2007-08 to 30158.59 tons in 2011-12. whereas in value term it show an increase trend during the same period. There is tremendous potential for exports of pomegranate from India and it is fact that India is largest producer of pomegranates in the world. Moreover, India produces finest edible quality of pomegranates which are available almost throughout the year. The major Markets of India’s pomegranate during the year 2011-12 were UAE, Bangladesh, Netherlands, UK, Saudi Arabia and Rassia.
 
 
 
Export of Pomegranate from India in the Last Five Years
 
Years
Qty. (ton's)
Value(in Rs. Lakh)
2007-08
35175.17
9119.49
2008-09
34811.21
11461.62
2009-10
33415.07
11942.84
2010-11
18211.67
7095.20
2011-12
30158.59
14726.88
 
Source: APEDA Database, 2011-12
 
 
 
 
C. Countries Wise Export of Pomegranates from India
 
Export of Pomegranates (HS Code : 08109010 )
Qty. in MT , Value In Rs. Lacs
Countries
2009 -10
2010-11
2011-12
% Share in Value
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
U A E
17,350.00
5,170.01
11,229.57
3,884.42
15,899.74
6,416.44
43.57
Bangladesh Pr
4,783.71
468.16
1,964.84
252.55
4,593.46
2,383.70
16.18
Netherland
2,567.71
1,985.31
389.07
330.17
732.69
1,028.17
6.98
U K
973.20
1,051.47
531.27
825.45
890.85
975.31
6.62
Saudi Arab
1,789.35
627.77
1,182.83
368.44
2,196.63
870.39
5.91
Russia
470.63
521.48
186.46
279.87
398.08
573.32
3.89
Thailand
280.26
195.99
104.94
135.50
298.07
310.61
2.11
Nepal
1,447.64
157.11
819.18
111.07
1,438.26
246.85
1.68
Kuwait
505.77
222.43
204.40
102.48
489.65
236.30
1.60
Oman
415.58
151.55
310.92
85.85
391.87
198.95
1.35
Other Countries
2,785.08
1,391.53
1,288.18
719.44
2,832.97
1,487.80
10.10
Total
33368.93
11942.81
18,211.66
7,095.24
30,162.27
14,727.84
100.00
 
Source: DGCIS
 
 
 
 
D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness for export
 
Following measures if adopted are likely to enhance competitiveness of Indian Pomegranates in foreign markets :
  • Competition of India with regard to export of pomegranates is with Spain and Iran, which are nearer to European countries who import maximum quantity.Our efforts needs to be towards lowering production cost by increasing productivity.
  • For exporting to South East Asian countries, and to economize on cost of transport, it is suggested that special production areas for export need to be developed in Anantpur area in Andhra Pradesh and drier areas of Tamil Nadu, so that exports can be done from eastern ports.
  • Packhouse facilities need to be established in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh pomegranate growing areas also.
  • India has already embarked upon building up quality and branding its product in order to compete with Spain and Iran. The Brand needs to be popularized aggressively.
  • Pomegranate supplies from Spain and Iran to Europe taper from January onwards and therefore, supplies from India need to be concentrated during February to July months with the help of Hast and Ambe bahar when there will be no competition from Spain.
  • Efforts need to be made to popularize pomegranates in Canada, U.S.A., South American countries etc by holding fruit fairs, exhibitions etc, as there is good price realization also from these countries.
  • Similarly, efforts need to be accelerated in popularizing pomegranates in Australia, Korea, Japan, etc.
 
12.
Storage
 
Temperature:
5 - 7°C
Relative Humidity:.
90 - 95%
Storage Period:.
2 - 3 months
 
13.
Documents required for exports
 
a). Documents related to goods
  • Invoice
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of origin
 
b). Documents related to shipment
  • Mate Receipt
  • Shipping Bill
  • Bill of handing
  • Airway Bill
 
c). Documents related to Payment
  • Letter of Credit (L/C)
  • Bill of Exchange
 
d) Documents related to quality of goods
  • Phytosanitary Certificate
  • GLOBALGAP Certification
  • Health Certificate
 
e) Organic Certification
  • Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
 
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
  • GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
 
g) Other Document
  • Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.
Chain of events (pack house up to shipment)
 
FLOW DIAGRAM OF ESSENTIAL OPERATIONS OF POMEGRANATE EXPORTERS/PACKERS
  • Production
  • Monitoring pesticide/fungicide application program
  • Inspection at farm level or final field survey
  • Harvesting by hand and cutting stem properly
  • Transport to packhouse
  • Receipt at packhouse
  • Rejection of unwanted fruits
  • Washing with a disinfectant and then with clean water
  • Removal of excess water
  • Treatment with fungicide and wax
  • Drying
  • Sizing
  • Grading for quality
  • Nose cleaning
  • Packed into cardboard boxes
  • Precooling
  • Palletisation
  • Storage in cold store
  • Container loading
  • Transportation to port
 
 
15.
The given below tables shows the annual average price range of pomegranates in different international markets. The table shows the pricing trend in EU markets.
 
Summary of prices for pomegranate in potential markets for India.
 
Country
Annual Average price Range (2008)
Currency
European Union
USD/kg
2.52 to 4.08
INR/kg
113.4 to183.6
 
Source: ITC Market News Service, Talkingretail.com, Freshplaza.com, Pomegranet.info
 
16.
Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port Showing the cost involved in exporting pomegranate (as per information collected during 2008)
 
 
(a) Procurement price*:
 
Variety
Approx. price (in Rs./kg)
Bhagwa 40 - 60
 
 
 
*Price of pomegranates varies according to variety like Bhagwa, Arakta or Ganesh
 
 
 
 
 
Charges for harvesting, packing, transport ,etc. (below in table):
 
Particulars (Cost per kg)
20 container (Rs/kg)
40 container (Rs/kg)
Packing cost
5.2
5.2
Precooling + Cold storage
3.0
3.0
Inland transportation charges
3.5
1.7
Labour cost
1.0
1.0
Total
12.7
10.9
 
Source: MSAMB, Maharashtra.
 
 
 
Freight rates for reefer container are as follows:
 
Countries
Reefer containers (Rates in US dollars)
20’
40’
Dubai/Doha
1100
1600
Kuala Lampur/Singapore
600
900
UK/Amsterdam
1700
2700
 
* It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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