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SESAME
1. Introduction
Sesame is commonly known as “Till”. Its botanical name is Sesamum indicum L. It is one of the earliest domesticated plants. It is a short duration crop grown throughout the year. The seeds of the plant yield edible oil. Due to the presence of potent antioxidant, sesame seeds are known as “the seed of immortality”. Two distinct types of seed are recognized, the white and the black. There are also intermediate coloured varieties varying from red to rose or from brown or grey.
World scenario
India ranks first in the area, however, as per 2006 data it comes after China in production of sesame seeds in the world. During the year 2007 however, India leads world in sesame production. India's contribution to the production of sesame seeds in the world is 18.8% in 2006-07. Other major sesame producing countries are China (19.9%), Myanmar (17.3%), Sudan (5.9%), Uganda (4.9%), Nigeria (2.9%), Pakistan (0.8%), Ethiopia (4.7%) and Bangladesh (1.4%). The productivity of sesame in India is 0.33 tons/ha compared to world average of 0.44 tons/ha in the year 2006-07.
Table 15.1: Area, production and productivity of sesame (2006)
COUNTRY
AREA ('000 ha)
PRODUCTION ('000 tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
% SHARE OF WORLD PRODUCTION
India
1,900.0
628.0
0.33
18.8
China
640.0
665.0
1.03
19.9
Myanmar
1,570.0
580.0
0.36
17.3
Sudan
1,270.0
200.0
0.15
5.9
Uganda
276.0
166.0
0.60
4.9
Ethiopia
219.6
159.0
0.72
4.7
Nigeria
196.0
100.0
0.51
2.9
Pakistan
68.2
29.5
0.43
0.8
Bangladesh
80.0
50.0
0.62
1.4
Others
1,319.6
760.4
0.57
22.7
World
7,539.
3,337.9
0.44
Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567
2.
Major producing states
Gujarat is the leading sesame producing state contributing 22.3% of total production, followed by West Bengal (19.2%), Karnataka (13.5%), Rajasthan (9.8%), Madhya Pradesh (9.06%), Tamil Nadu (4.7%), Andhra Pradesh (4.52%) and Maharashtra (4.52%). Details are given below in table 15.2.
Table 15.2: Area, production and productivity of leading sesame growing states in India
STATES
AREA('000 ha)
PRODUCTION ('000 tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Gujarat
402.4
371.9
364.0
240.8
117.1
143.0
0.59
0.31
0.39
West Bengal
163.3
148.4
146.0
143.0
125.1
123.1
0.87
0.84
0.84
Karnataka
58.5
108.0
103.0
25.7
56.0
87.0
0.43
0.51
0.84
Rajasthan
311.8
446.7
422.1
141.2
148.7
62.8
0.45
0.33
0.14
Madhya
Pradesh
144.5
135.3
150.1
50.9
53.8
58.1
0.35
0.39
0.38
Tamil Nad
83.8
72.7
65.1
29.0
33.8
30.6
0.34
0.46
0.47
Andhra
Pradesh
161.0
210.0
116.0
43.0
38.0
29.0
0.26
0.18
0.25
Maharashtra
121.0
109.0
107.0
38.0
26.0
29.0
0.31
0.23
0.27
Others
363.1
350.0
352.9
93.9
131.6
165.5
0.25
0.48
0.46
Total
1700.3
1844.0
1723.2
782.1
674.1
641.1
0.46
0.36
0.37

 

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
http://www.dacnet.nic.in/eands/APY_96_To_06.htm
3.
Commercial Sesame varieties
White, bold seeded varieties of sesame, which meet the export quality, are Nirmala, Gujarat Til-2, JTS-8, HT-1, Tapi and Phule Til-1.
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Adoption of improved varieties.
Integrated nutrient & water management.
Integrated pest and disease management.
5.
Harvesting season of crop in India
Harvest season of sesame in major states is depicted below
States
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Gujarat
West Bengal
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Andhra Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Source: Sesame (Technology for Increasing Production), JNKVV, Jabalpur
6.
Arrival pattern
Maximum arrivals of crop are in the months of October to January. However, in certain states arrivals are also reported in the months of February to June.
Source: Sesame (Technology for Increasing Production), JNKVV, Jabalpur
Maximum arrivals of crop are in the months of October to January. However, in certain states arrivals are also reported in the months of February to June.
7 (a)
Concentrated pockets
The details of the concentrated pockets of sesame are given below in table 15.3.
Table 15.3: Showing concentrated pockets of sesame in India
States
Important markets
Gujarat
Rajkot, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Jamnagar, Junagarh and Surendranagar
West Bengal
East Medinipur, Nadia, North Dinajpur, Burdwan, Kamrup, 24- North
Parganas, Birbhum
Rajasthan
Hanumangarh, Ganganagar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Pali
Tamil Nadu
Erode, Salem, Villupuram, Virdhachalam, Tiruchirapalli, Cuddalore
Andhra Pradesh
Hiramandalam, Rajam, Vizianagaram, Narasipatanam, Narasaraopet, Guduru,
Gudur, Kadapa, Chennur, Warangal, Tirumalagiri, Khamman
Madhya Pradesh
Sehore, Harda, Indore, Bhikangaon, Burhanpur, Khargone, Sabalgarh,
Seopurkala, Ajaygarh, Tikamgarh, Chhatarpur, Damoh
Maharashtra
Jalgaon, Bodwad, Yawal, Khamgaon, Chopda, Pachora, Dhule, Ahmedpur,
Chalisgaon, Dharagaon
7. b) Catchment area
Table 15.4: Showing the catchment areas feeding the market
States
Districts (market)
Blocks
Gujarat
Rajkot
Malia, Morbi, Wankaner, Tankara, Paddhari, Lodhika,
Kotdasangani, Jusdan, Dhoraji, Upleta, Gondal
Amreli
Babra, Lilia, Vadia, Bagara, Dhari, Sarvarkundla, Khambha,
Rajula, Jafrabad
Bhuj
Nalia, Mandvi, Nakhatrana, Anjar, Gandhidham, Rajpur
West Bengal
East Medinipur
Tamluk
Nadia
Karimpur, Shantipur
North Dinajpur
Islampur
Burdwan
Kalna, Katwa
Kamrup
Bongaon
24-North Parganas
Baduria
Birbhum
Nalhati, Rampurhat
Rajasthan
Ganganagar
Padampur, Pabusar, Binjor, Gharsana
Alwar
Bahror, Mandawar, Tijara, Jairoli, Nimli, Maoha,
Kishangarh, Ramgarh, Lanchhmangarh, Rajgarh
Tamil Nadu
Erode
Dharapuram, Kangeyam, Satyamangalam,
Gopichettipalaiyam, Bhavani
Salem
Mettur, Idappadi, Sankagiri, Yercaud, Vazhappadi, Attur,
Gangavalli
Madhya Pradesh
Indore
Sanwer, Depalpur, Mhow, Khand
Damoh
Batiagarh, Patharia, Hatta, Jabera, Tendukhed
Sehore
Barkhera, Duraha, Ichhawar, Ashta, Silkanth
Maharashtra
Jalgaon
Chopda, Yaval, Raver, Edalbad, Bhusawal, Jamner, Pachora,
Bhadgaon, Chalisgaon, Parola, Amainer, Boradi
Dhule
Shirpur, Sindhkheda, Sakri, Nardana, Boradi, Sangvi

 

8. Criteria and description of grades
A .Grade designation and definition of quality of sesame seeds as per AGMARK standard
Table 15.5: Grade designation and definition of quality of sesame seeds as per AGMARK standard
Grade
designati
on
Definition of quality
A) Special characteristics
Foreign
matter (%
by weight,
maximum)
Immature,
Shrivelled and
dead seeds(%
by weight,
maximum)
Damaged &
discoloured
seeds (% by
weight,
maximum)
Total impurities
(total of column
2-4), % by
weight,
maximum
Admixture of
other
varieties/types(
% by weight,
maximum)
Moisture
content(%
by weight,
maximum)
Special
0.5
1.0
Nil
1.5
5.0
5.0
Good
1.0
2.0
1.0
3.0
10.0
6.0
General
2.0
3.0
2.0
5.0
15.0
7.0

 

B. General characteristics
a) The sesame seeds obtained from the plant Sesamum indicum linn Sya, family Pedaliaceae
b) Free from fungus and insect attack, live insects, obnoxious smell, rodent contamination, excreta, non edible oil seeds, artificial colouration and all other impurities except to the extent specified
Definitions :
(1) Foreign matter: means dust, lumps of earth, dirt, stones, stems, straw or any other impurity and/ or any other edible/non edible seeds.
(2) Damaged and discolored are the seeds that are materially or internally damaged or seeds: discolored materially affecting the quality.
(3) Immature shrivelled & are the seeds which are imperfectly developed and or dead seeds: shrunken. Dead seeds are those seeds which are duds
and can be easily crushed by finger.
(4) Admixture of other Means admixture of brown/black and other colored Sesame types/varieties: seeds in white and vice versa.

 

9.
Packaging
Sesame seeds are packed in 50 Kg net in A-twill bags or B-twill jute gunny bags.
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
Sesame seeds from the state of Gujarat are distributed to Delhi, Mumbai etc forexport/domestic consumption.
The sesame seeds from the markets of Andhra Pradesh are dispatched to markets of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka states.
Sesame seeds grown in West Bengal state are distributed to consumer markets within the state and in states of Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh etc.
11.
Price graph of sesame

 

*The above graph showing the price (in Rs./Qtl.) of sesame in major cities
Source: http://agmarknet.nic.in/agnew/NationalBEnglish/commoditywisedailyreport3.aspx
12.
Exports and Export potential
A. Domestic strengths for exporting sesame are detailed below
India is the largest producer of sesame in the world.
There is good research support for sesame from ICAR Research Coordinating Centre on Sesame, Jabalpur, IARI, New Delhi and SAUs located in different regions of the country to provide solutions to various problems in its cultivation.
APEDA has sanctioned Agri-Export Zone in Gujarat covering Amreli, Bhavnagar, Surendranagar, Rajkot and Jamnagar districts.
India has bred high yeilding cultivars and has been made available to cultivators.
B. Exports
Export data of FAO website shows that 218,970 tons of sesame seeds were exported from India during 2001-02, however it declined to 118,376 tons during 2002-03. Thereafter there was again good upsurge in exports during 2003-04 to 189,113 tons. Ultimately as per this database, 1, 99,808 tons were exported during 2005-06. No data for 2006-07 is available on FAO database;
however Comtrade database shows exports of 233,345 tons during the year. (Table 15.6 & Fig. 39).This database also depicted 302,345 tons of exports during 2007.
Table 15.6: Export of sesame from India
Year
Quantity(tons)
Value(Rs. Lakh)
2002-2003
118376
37203
2003-2004
189113
70043
2004-2005
156664
65067
2005-2006
199808
74513
2006-2007
233345
93271
Source: www. Fao.org and Comtrade Database

 

C. Export potential
Export potential of sesame, region wise is discussed below:
(i) GCC countries
As per Comtrade database, GCC countries imported 45,849 tons of sesame during 2006. There is 101% increase in demand. The largest importers were Saudi Arabia (28,626 tons), UAE (14,463 tons) and Kuwait (2496 tons).However, India’s exports to GCC countries were quite less as compared to the potential that exists. India exported only 3224 tons to UAE, 2726 tons to Saudi Arabia and 764 tons to Kuwait. Till 2005, India was the largest exporter to UAE, however in 2006 India was overtaken by Ethiopia. Main competitions is from Ethiopia and Sudan and are able to supply at cheaper rates, as they are near to GCC countries compared to India. Moreover India’s productivity of sesame is 50% of the productivity of Ethiopia. Thus in order to be competitive; India must enhance the productivity in addition, to quality standards.
(ii) Middle East countries
India is exporting to the tune of 10,467 tons to Turkey, 1665 tons to Cyprus, 1069 tons to Jordan and 153 tons to Morocco. India should nurture these markets to further enhance exports. India must also explore export to Egypt as they imported 48,294 tons of sesame seeds during 2006.
(iii) European Union
European Union imported sesame seeds of 1, 21,053 tons during 2006. The quantum of imports decreased from 2003 level at 1%. India’s exports to EU were maximum, as 48% of the requirements were met by India and other exporters are Guatemala, Sudan, and Paraguay etc. supplying only limited quantity. Largest importers of sesame from India during the year 2006 were Germany (14,288 tons), Netherlands (11,993 tons), Greece (9748 tons), Poland (6231 tons), Italy (4671 tons), UK (3343 tons) and France (2016 tons).India must keep up the momentum and to maintain position as largest supplier/ exporter to EU must improve upon quality and cut on cost of production to be more competitive.
(iv) ASEAN countries
ASEAN countries imported sesame seeds up to 22,510 tons during 2006.There is a 21.6% increase in demand. India is meeting 60% demand of ASEAN countries. Main importers of Indian sesame are Malaysia (7195 tons), Indonesia (3258 tons), Singapore (1876 tons) and Philippines (921 tons).Major competition with India in ASEAN region is from Myanmar, but India is able to make available sesame in these markets at competitive prices and can be much
more competitive if India can cut down on cost of production by increasing productivity in a significant manner.
(v) Pacific Rim countries and China
Export potential in these countries is as follows:
(a) South Korea
South Korea imported 85,567 tons of sesame seeds during 2006. Out of this total import, 38,686 tons were exported by India and 33,081 tons by China. India supplied at much competitive price over China and thus there is a scope of increasing share in imports. India must improve upon quality and reduction in costs.
(b) Australia
Australia imported 6604 tons of sesame during 2006, out of which India supplied 4836 tons and rest by Mexico, Guatemala and China. However India supplied sesame like in South Korea at much competitive and cheaper price compared to other countries mentioned above.
(c) China
China imported 2, 63,587 tons of sesame during 2006.Major exporters to China were Ethiopia (1, 34,989 tons), Sudan (67,426 tons), and Tanzania (12,570 tons). India exported only 13,487 tons during this year. India exported sesame at much competitive rates over Ethiopia and Sudan.Next year in 2007 China imported 1, 94,461 tons of sesame. This year Ethiopia’s share decreased and supplied only 75,563 tons, whereas India’s share increased to 37,214 tons compared to 13487 tons in 2006.
Since India is nearer to China compared to Ethiopia and Sudan and therefore India must make a sincere effort to have more share in imports of China. This needs to be done on priority by cutting cost of cultivation and improving quality, as China is largest importer in the world because of massive demand of sesame in China.
(d) Japan
Japan is second largest importer of sesame next to China in the world and imported 1, 59,110 tons during the year 2006. India did not export sesame to Japan at all. However, requirements of sesame were met by Nigeria (45,388 tons), Paraguay (21,986 tons), Tanzania (17,579 tons), China (9497 tons), Bolivia (10,439 tons) and Gautemala (7369 tons). India must explore exports to Japanese market, as India is closer to Japan compared to Gautemala, Paraguay, Nigeria, Tanzania etc and can offer much better competitive price over Paraguay, China, Gautemala and Bolivia.
(vi) North America
USA alone imported 43,316 tons of sesame during 2006. Canada also imported sizeable quantities of sesame although exact figures are not known.India exported during the year (2006), 18,436 tons of sesame seeds to U.S.A and 4265 tons to Canada. Although India supplies 42% of demand of U.S.A, however still effort needs to be made to have higher share in imports of U.S.A.
D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness
Competitiveness for export of sesame seed can be enhanced by taking following measures.
Competitiveness can be enhanced by meeting the quality standards of importing countries regarding pesticide residues, foreign matter, moisture level etc.
Productivity of sesame in India is 1/3rd of the productivity of China and also lower than countries like Bangladesh and African countries like Uganda, Ethiopia, Nigeria etc. thus only way to enhance India's competitiveness is to increase the productivity per hectare, so that India can make sesame available at competitive prices.
India is playing a dominant role in International trade of sesame and therefore it will be advisable to develop brand name for Indian sesame. It will help in enhancing competitiveness.
13.
Storage
Sesame seeds should be stored in clean and dry, moisture proof area free from insects, pests and rodents.
14.
Documents required for exports
a) Documents related to goods
a) Invoice b) Packing List c) Certificate of origin
b) Documents related to shipment
a) Mate Receipt b) Shipping Bill c) Bill of handing d) Airway Bill
c) Documents related to Payment
a) Letter of Credit (L/C) b) Bill of Exchange
d) Documents related to quality of goods
a) Phytosanitary Certificate b) GLOBALGAP Certification c) Health Certificate
e) Organic Certification
- Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
g) Other Document
Bank Realization Certification (BRC):This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
15.
Chain of events
↓Harvesting
Curing and↓ threshing
↓Winnowing
↓Cleaning
↓Sieving
↓Drying
↓Transportation
16.
Price prevailing in international markets
The given below tables shows the annual average price range of sesame seeds in the market of EU countries. The table 15.7 shows the pricing trend in the market of EU countrie
Table 15.7: Summary of prices for sesame seeds in target market for India
Country
Annual Average price Range (2003-08)
Currency
EU
USD/kg
0.99 to 2.95
INR/kg
44.9 to 132.98
Source: Comtrade Database
17.
Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port
Cost estimates for exports of sesame seeds from India (as per information collected during 2008)
(a) Procurement price*:
Approx. price (Rs. /kg) : 36-98 (Mundra)
*Price of sesame seeds varies according to variety, month of procurement
(b) Charges for packing, transport etc. (below in table):
Table 15.8: Charges for packing, transport, etc.
Particulars
Cost /ton (Rs)
Packing material (jute bags 50 kgs)
460
Transport to port (from Gujarat to Gujarat port)
450-600
Total
910 – 1060
or 0.91 to 1.06 per kg
Source: IOPEA, Mumbai
(c) Sea freight charges*:
Freight rates for ordinary container are as follows:
Ordinary containers
(i) EU-------------------------- 80-100
(ii) US-------------------------- 90-120
(iii) Turkey --------------------------90-100
(iv) China, Korea and other far east-------------------------- 20-30
* It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.