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1.
Introduction
 
Tomato ranks third in priority after Potato and Onion in India but ranks second after potato in the world. India ranks second in the area as well as in production of Tomato.
World Scenario
 
The major tomato growing countries are China, USA, Italy, Turkey, India and Egypt. Total area under tomato is 4582438 thousand ha with production of 150513813 thousand tons and with productivity of 32.8 tons/ha. The latest area, production and productivity of major tomato growing countries in 2010 - 2011 is given below in the table.
 
Major Tomato Producing Countries In The World (2010-11)
Country
Area (‘000ha)
Production (‘000 Tons)
Productivity (tons/Ha)
% Share Of World Production
China
871235
41879684
48.1
28
India
865000
16826000
19.5
11
U S A
159200
12902000
81.0
9
Turkey
304000
10052000
33.1
7
Egypt
216385
8544990
39.5
6
Italy
118822
6024800
50.7
4
Iran
146985
5256110
35.8
3
Spain
58300
4312700
74.0
3
Brazil
60772
3691320
60.7
2
Mexico
98189
2997640
30.5
2
Others
1683550
38026569
22.6
25
World + Total)
4582438
150513813
32.8
100
 
Indian Horticulture Database 2011
 
 
 
 
Indian Scenario
 
There is a sizeable increase in acreage and production of tomato in India. There is an increase from 596.0 thousand ha in 2006-07 to 865.0 thousand ha in 2010-11, while in terms of production it has increased from 10055.0 to 16826.0 thousand tons.
 
 
Showing the Area, Production and Productivity of Tomato in India
 
Years
AREA(000’ ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2006-07
596.0
10055.0
16.9
2007-08
566.0
10303.0
18.2
2008-09
599.0
11149.0
18.6
2009-10
634.4
12433.2
19.6
2010-11
865.0
16826.0
19.5
 
Source : National Horticulture Board -2011
 
 
 
2.
Major Producing States with Production of Last Three Years
 
 
Area, Production and Productivity of Leading Tomato Growing States in India
 
State wise Area, Production and Productivity of  Tomato
State
Area in 000’ ha
Production in (000’ MT )
Productivity (ha/MT)
% Share of Production
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Area
Prod.
Pdy.
Andhra Pradesh
74.10
1408.10
19.00
87.00
1652.10
19.00
296.30
5926.20
20.00
35.22
Karnataka
53.40
1573.80
29.50
48.30
1580.00
32.70
51.20
1756.70
34.30
10.44
Orrisa
101.10
1360.50
13.50
102.90
1394.70
13.60
96.60
1367.20
14.10
8.13
Maharashtra
33.00
732.30
22.20
50.00
1112.50
22.30
52.00
738.00
14.20
4.39
West Bengal
52.30
999.70
19.10
53.50
1050.00
19.60
54.10
1063.70
19.60
6.32
Bihar
46.40
1037.20
22.40
46.50
1043.70
22.40
46.80
1056.20
22.60
6.28
Gujarat
30.50
746.20
24.40
33.80
841.30
24.90
38.80
978.40
25.20
5.81
Chhatishgarh
39.20
420.40
10.70
41.30
600.60
14.50
42.90
627.90
14.60
3.73
Tamilnadu
0.00
0.00
0.00
26.10
519.10
19.90
27.20
580.60
21.40
3.45
Jharkhand
21.80
436.10
20.00
21.80
436.20
20.00
22.30
401.60
18.00
2.39
Others
147.20
2434.70
16.50
123.20
2203.00
17.90
136.60
2330.00
17.10
13.85
Total
599.10
11148.80
18.60
634.40
12433.20
19.60
864.90
16826.40
19.50
100.00
 
Source : National Horticulture Board -2011
 
 
 
3.
Description of some commercial Tomato Varieties
Shows the varietal characteristics of commercially grown Tomato varieties
 
 
Variety/ Type
Characteristics
ARTH-3
Plants determinate; fruits large, squarish round, deep red, compact; uniform ripening, harvesting starts after 80-85 days and continues upto 160-180 days; gives an average yield of 88-95 tons/ha. Suitable for table purpose.
Avinash-2
Heavy yielder, determinate, compact growing hybrid. Fruits semi oblong, medium sized, good coloured, uniform ripening.
Pusa Hybrid-1
Plants are determinate; compact with good foliage cover and prolific bearing; ruits are round, smooth and attractive. It has an added advantage of providing tomato from June to mid July.
Pusa Hybrid 4
Plants are determinate, compact with dark green foliage, good foliage cover; fruits are attractive, round smooth, average weight of 70-80grams and it shows uniform ripening, good for long transportation. Average yield 550 Qtl/Ha.
Vishal Arka Plants are determinate; fruits are round, firm, deep red with green shoulder, average weight of 140 gram; tolerant to fruit cracking; matures in 160 days with an average yield of 75tons/Ha.
 
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Raising of seedlings.
  • Nutrient management.
  • Use of plant growth regulators for better yield.
  • Plant protection.
 
5.
Harvesting Season of Crop in Leading States
 
 
 
 
-Lean Period
-Peak Period
- Throughout Year
   
 
STATE/UT’S
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
Orrisa
Maharashtra
West Bengal                          
Bihar                          
Gujarat                        
Chhatishgarh                        
Tamilnadu                        
 
*The above graph shows harvest pattern in leading Tomato growing states.
   
6.
Arrival pattern in market
 
In Gujarat and Maharashtra tomatoes are available round the year in one pocket or the other. By adopting suitable agro techniques, the tomato can be made available throughout the year.
 
 
 
Month wise availability of Tomato
 
Period of Harvest
Areas
January- March Bihar, Eastern UP, MP, Orissa, foot hills of Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Assam
April- May Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka, Rajasthan
June-July H.P. Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Gujarat
August-September Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, Gujarat
October-November Chattisgarh, Tamil Nadu
December Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan
 
 
7.
(a) Concentrated Pockets
 
The details of concentrated pockets of Tomato in different states are listed below:
 
 
 
Shows concentrated pockets of Tomato in Tomato growing states.
 
State
Districts
Maharashtra
Nasik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Sholapur, Satara, Sangli, Nagpur.
Karnataka
Kolar, Banglore, Belgaum.
Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool, Rangareddy, Prakasam, Mehboobnagar.
Bihar
Muzzaffarpur, Vaishali, Mandya.
West Bengal Puralia, Nadia, Bankura, Burdhman
Tamil Nadu Dharmapuri,Salem
Gujarat Valsad, Surat, Navsari, Kheda, Ahmedabad.
 
 
 
(b) Catchment Areas of Market
 
Showing the details of catchment Areas of Markets of Tomato in Leading States
 
States
Districts (Market)
Blocks
Maharashtra Pune Junnar, Ambegaon, Ghod, Rajgurunagar, Wadgaonsirur, Mulshi, Welhe, Purandhar, Bhor, Baramati, Indapur, Daund, Saswad.
Nasik Kalvan, Peint, Igatpuri, Sinnar, Niphad, Yeola, Nandgaon, Satana, Furgana, Dindori, Melgaon.
Satara Mahabaleshwar, Khandala, Wai, Phaltan, Koregaon, Khata, Patan, Karad, Vadug
Sangli Atpadi, Khanapur, Islampur, Shirala, Valva, Tasgaon, Kavathe, Mahankal
Karnataka Bangalore Sonnenahali, Bettenhalli, Chokkanhalli, Baglur, Nagarur,Shivanapura, Tavarkere, Maragondahalli, Anekal
Belgaum Athni, Arkali, Chikodi, Mukeri, Bailhongal, Ramdurg, Khauapur
Andhra Pradesh Kurnool Emmiganuru, Kappagalu, Alur, Adoni, Atmakpur, Pattikonda, Dhone, Koilkuntla, Banganpalli, Allagadda
Prakasam Erragondapalem, Markopur, Giddalur, Tarlupadu, Podile, Darsai, Baulipali, Chundi
Mehboobnagar Kollur, Keshampat, Mughalgidda, Karnul, Wanparti, Atmakur, Gadwall, Alampur, Kolhapur, Achampet, Kondangol.
Bihar Muzzaffarpur Sahebganj, Baruraj, Hursepur, Minapur, Kanti, Parui, Paruii, Kurhani, Sacra, Dholi, Bochacha, Gaihati, Katra, Aurai
Vaishali Kalyanpur, Lalganj, Goraul, Mahuwa, Patepur, Desri, Bidpur
West Bengal Puruliya Jhalida, Jalpur, Para, Nituria, Santuria, Kashipur, Hura, Puncha, Manbazar, Baghmundi, Raghunathpur.
Nadia Karimpur, Tehata, Kaliganj, Nakasipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar, Shantipur, Ranaghat, Chakdaha, Kalyani.
Tamil Nadu Dharmapuri Pennagaram, Harur, Pappireedipatti, Palakkodu, Pochampalli
Salem Mettur, Yercaud, Idappadi, Omalpur, Attur, Gangavalli, Sankagiri
Gujarat Valsad Kadiyan, Zoz, Kikawada, Nimeta, Tundav, Kadachhala, Nasvadi, Kwant, Dabhoi. Karjan, Sinor, Ambadunger, Vadodara, Sankheda
Surat Mangrol, Umarwada, Nizer, Olpal, Kamrej, Mahuva, Valod, Bardoi, Buhari, Umra, Tadkeshwar.
Ahmedabad Mandal, Rampura, Samand, Bavia, Dholka, Dhandhkulla, Ranapur
 
 
8.
Criteria and description of grades
 
Details of grade designation and sizing of Tomato as per AGMARK standard
 
Grade
Designation
Grade Requirements Provision
concerning
sizing
Grade Tolerances
1
2 3 4
Extra class
Tomatoes shall be of superior quality. They shall have firm flesh and must be characteristics of the variety as regards shape, appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
As per table A
5% by number or weight of tomatoes not satisfying the
requirement of the grade, but meeting those of class I or exceptionally, coming
within the tolerances
of that grade.
Class I
Tomatoes shall be of good quality. They shall have reasonably firm flesh and shall be characteristics of the
variety as regards shape, appearance and development. They must free of cracks and visible green back. The
following slight defects may be there provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality,
the keeping quality and the presentation in the package.
-a slight defect in shape and development;
-a slight defect in colouring;
-slight skin defects;
-very slight bruises;
“ribbed” tomatoes may show:
-no excessive protuberances;
-small nonlignified umbilical scars
-Suberization of the stigma upto 1 sq. cm
-no more than 1 headed scar
-umbilical lignified scars not greater than 1 sq.cm or linear scar no longer than 2/3 rd of the greatest diameter of the fruit
As per table A
10% by number or weight of tomatoes not satisfying the requirements of the
grade, but meeting those of class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that grade.
Class II
Tomatoes shall be reasonably firm flesh and shall be characteristic of the variety( but may be slightly less firm
than in class I) and must not show unhealed cracks. Following defects may be there provided the tomatoes
retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation.
-defects in shape, development and colouring;
- skin defects or bruises, provided the fruit is not seriously affected;
- healed cracks not more than 3 cm in length.
“ribbed” tomatoes may show:
-more pronounced protuberances but without being misshapen;
- one umbilicus;
-umbilical lignified scars not greater than 2 sq. cm;
- fine blossom scar in elongated form.
As per table A
10% by number or weight of tomatoes not satisfying the requirements of the
grade, but meeting the
minimum requirements. In case of trusses of tomatoes,
10%by number or weight of tomatoes detached from the
stalk.
 
 
 
PROVISION CONCERNING SIZING
 
Sizing is determined by the maximum diameter of the equatorial section in accordance with following table. The provision shall not apply to “cherry” tomatoes. The minimum size is set at 35 mm for “round” and “ribbed” tomatoes and 30 mm for “oblong” tomatoes:
 
Details of sizing in Tomato
 
Size Code
Diameter in mm (minimum - Maximum)
1 30 - 34
2 35 - 39
3 40 - 46
4 47 - 56
5 57 - 66
6 67 - 81
7 82 - 101
 
9.
Packaging & its details
 
For export purpose, tomato is first packed in consumer packs of LDPE or PP (polypropylene). Twenty consumer packs of 250 gm are placed in a 5 Kg CFB box. The specification details of CFB box is given below:
 
S.No.
Box Size
Dimension
1. 5 Kg Box 450X265X110 mm
 
The details specifications are given below in the table : 
 
 
Specification details for Corrugated Fiber Board (CFB) Boxes for packing Tomato for Exports
 
S.No.
Specification
Slide Type
Ring *Flap Tuck-In-Type
RSC(REGULAR SLOTTED CONTAINER)
Tray with LID
1.
Material for construction
5-ply CFB
5-ply CFB
5-ply CFB
5-ply CFB
2.
Grammage (g/m sq.)(outer to inner)
*230X140 X140X140
*230X140 X140X140
*230X140 X140X140
*230X140 X140X140
3.
Bursting strength
kg/cm sq.
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
Min. 10.00
4.
Puncture resistance
inches/teat inch
Min..250
Min..250
Min..250
Min..250
5.
Compression strength Kg.
Min.350
Min.350
Min.350
Min.350
6.
Cobb (30 minutes
g/m sq.)
Max.130
Max.130
Max.130
Max.130
 
*Outer ply of white duplex board
 
Source: Post- Harvest Manuals on Export of Fruits, APEDA, New Delhi.
 
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Most of the tomatoes are produced in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
  • TThe major markets of tomatoes are Kurnool, Prakasam, Bangalore, Belgaum, Nasik, Pune, Sangli and Nagpur.
  • From above markets tomatoes reach markets of Mumbai, Bhopal, Lucknow, Delhi etc for further distribution.
 
 
11.
Exports and export potential
 
A. Domestic Strengths for Exporting Tomato
 
Domestic strengths for exporting Tomatoes are given below:
  • India stands at fourth position in production of tomatoes next to China, U.S.A. And Turkey.
  • Maximum production of tomatoes takes place in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat etc.
  • Tomatoes are available for export throughout the year.
  • High yielding F1 hybrids are being cultivated by farmers on a quite good scale
  • There is excellent research support from all the SAUs and National Research Institutes like IIHR, Bangalore and IIVR (Indian Institute of Vegetable Research), Varanasi.
  • Distribution of raised seedlings of F1 hybrids is quite prevalent and is getting popular among vegetable farmers.
  • APEDA has established a number of Agri Export Zones for vegetables namely in Punjab, U.P., Gujarat, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal for promoting exports of vegetables and infrastructure for the same is being/has been set up.
 
 
B. Exports
 
Export of tomatoes has increased from 1, 34,845.15 tons in 2007-08 to 2, 66,986.38 tons in 2011-12. A significant increase has been recorded of more than 97 %.
 
 
 
Export of Tomatoes in Last Five Years
 
Years
Qty. (ton's)
Value(in Rs. Lakh)
2007-08
1,34,845.15
15290.78
2008-09
1,24,617.22
12766.20
2009-10
1,05,861.62
10324.98
2010-11
65872.26
11509.98
2011-12
2,66,986.38
47030.50
 
Source: APEDA Database, 2011-12
 
 
 
 
C. Countries Wise Export of Tomato from India
 
Export of Tomato (HS Code : 07020000 )
Qty. in MT , Value In Rs. Lacs
Countries
2009 -10
2010-11
2011-12
% Share in Value
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
Pakistan
74,716.13
7,284.23
3,708.91
340.56
207,082.83
37,045.89
78.77
U Arab Emts
10,136.64
1,145.65
31,177.92
7,478.49
25,385.00
4,772.29
10.15
Bangladesh Pr
17,002.52
1,674.79
19,733.26
2,048.16
23,389.92
3,859.06
8.21
Nepal
2,311.95
121.26
3,268.88
227.31
5,439.14
573.03
1.22
Saudi Arab
0.00
0.00
2,261.47
539.39
967.74
269.71
0.57
Maldives
912.65
55.51
2,604.19
148.82
2,761.14
229.03
0.49
Thailand
280.26
195.99
2,209.19
532.01
827.97
207.29
0.44
Congo P Rep
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
830.50
24.44
0.05
Kuwait
0.00
0.00
126.01
29.89
46.00
11.94
0.03
U S A
0.00
0.00
61.62
5.85
85.53
8.69
0.02
Other Countries
193.86
7.54
720.81
159.50
170.61
29.13
0.06
Total
105556.95
10324.29
65,872.26
11509.98
266,986.38
47,030.50
100.00
 
Source: DGCIS
 
 
 
 
D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness for export
 
Following steps need to be taken on priority for enhancing competitiveness for exporting tomatoes:
  • India's yields of tomatoes are very low( 17.5 tons/Ha) compared to many countries like U.S.A., Spain, Italy, Egypt, Brazil etc. In order to be competitive, India must enhance productivity of quality produce.
  • Further, if India has to penetrate Middle East countries effectively, it must enhance quality of tomatoes and bring it to international standards not only in produce but also in presentation, packing etc.
  • Technology of CA and MA storage must be standardized perfected so that at least to GCC countries, tomato can be sent by Sea.
 
12.
Storage
 
Ripe
Unripe
Temperature:
7 - 8 °C
9 - 10 °C
Relative Humidity:.
90%
85-90%
Storage Period:.
1 week
4-5 weeks
 
13.
Documents required for exports
 
a). Documents related to goods
  • Invoice
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of origin
 
b). Documents related to shipment
  • Mate Receipt
  • Shipping Bill
  • Bill of handing
  • Airway Bill
 
c). Documents related to Payment
  • Letter of Credit (L/C)
  • Bill of Exchange
 
d) Documents related to quality of goods
  • Phytosanitary Certificate
  • GLOBALGAP Certification
  • Health Certificate
 
e) Organic Certification
  • Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
 
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
  • GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
 
g) Other Document
  • Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.
Chain of events (pack house up to shipment)
 
FLOW DIAGRAM OF ESSENTIAL OPERATIONS OF TOMATO EXPORTERS/PACKERS
  • Harvesting (in the morning)
  • Handling and transportation
  • Unloading
  • Grading and sorting
  • Packed in exportable containers
  • Precooled
  • Cold storage
  • Palletizing
  • Refrigerated truck
  • Shipment
 
 
15.
Price prevailing in International Markets
 
Summary of prices for Tomato in potential markets for India.
 
Country
Annual Average price Range (2003-08)
Currency
Dubai
USD/kg
0.88 to 1.77
INR/kg
40.0-80.0
 
Source: Personal communication from Dubai
 
16.
Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port Cost involved in exporting tomatoes from India (as per information collected during 2008)
 
 
(a) Procurement price*:
 
Approx. price (Rs. /kg) 4-10
 
 
 
*Price varies according to variety and month of procurement
 
 
 
(b) Charges for treatment, packing, transport, etc.
 
Particulars
Rs./kg
Precooling and cold storage
4.0
Handling and Packing cost
5.0
Transportation charge to Airport
8.0
Total cost
17.0
 
Source: Estimate of ITS Ltd.
 
 
 
C. Air freight charges*:
 
Freight rates for reefer container are as follows:
 
 
 
A. Air Freight Charges – London
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ LON
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
INR 60.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
 
 
 
B. Air Freight Charges – Amsterdam
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ AMS
+300
+500
+1000 Kgs
A/F
INR 75.00
INR 70.00
INR 66.00
Surcharge
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
INR 11.50
 
 
 
C. Air Freight Charges – Dubai
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Dubai
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 74/Kg
INR 62/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 42/Kg
INR 42/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
INR 40/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
D. Air Freight Charges – Doha
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Doha
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 65/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
E. Air Freight Charges – Muscat
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Muscat
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 75/Kg
INR 60/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 50/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
INR 35/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
F. Air Freight Charges – Singapore
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/Singapore
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 88/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 44/Kg
INR 39/Kg
INR 39/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB
 
 
 
G. Air Freight Charges – Kuala Lampur
 
Weight : All Weight Group
DEL/ Kuala Lumpur
+45
+100
+250
+300
+500
+1000
A/F (SCR General)
INR 70/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 63/Kg
INR 55/Kg
INR 53/Kg
INR 53/Kg
A/F (SCR 0006)
INR 45/Kg
INR 45/Kg
INR 38/Kg
INR 38/Kg
AWB
Rs. 750 per AWB